Global Mapping of Critical Minerals

The periodic table below illustrates the global abundance of critical minerals in the Earth’s crust in parts per million (ppm). Hover over each element to view! Lanthanides and actinides are omitted due to lack of available data.

Data is obtained from the USGS handbook “Critical Mineral Resources of the United States— Economic and Environmental Geology and Prospects for Future Supply.” The code used is found here.

Bokeh Plot

Because these minerals tend to concentrate in specific countries like niobium in Brazil or antimony in China and remain central to many areas of society such as national defense or engineering, governments like the US have come forward with listing these minerals as “critical.”

The abundance across different continents is shown in the map above.

You can find gallium, the most abundant of the critical minerals, in place of aluminum and zinc, elements smaller than gallium. Processing bauxite ore or sphalerite ore (from the sediment-hosted, Mississippi Valley-type and volcanogenic massive sulfide) of zinc yield gallium. The US meets its gallium needs through primary, recycled and refined forms of the element.

German and indium have uses in electronics, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar power arrays. China, Belgium, Canada, Japan and South Korea are the main producers of indium while germanium production can be more complicated. In many cases, countries import primary germanium from other ones, such as Canada importing from the US or Finland from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to recover them.

Rechargable battery cathodes and jet aircraft turbine engines make use of cobalt. While the element is the central atom in vitamin B12, excess and overexposure can cause lung and heart dysfunction and dermatitis.

As one of only three countries that processes beryllium into products, the US doesn’t put much time or money into exploring for new deposits within its own borders because a single producer dominates the domestic berllyium market. Beryllium finds uses in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and medical lasers.

A Deep Learning Overview with Python

This course proposes a quick introduction to deep learning and two of its major networks, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The purpose is to give an intuitive sense of how to implement deep learning approaches for various tasks. To use this iPython notebook, run the python code in separate files for each cell. The content below each cell of this notebook is the output for running those cells.

Simple perceptron

In [1]:
import numpy as np

# sigmoid function
def sigmoid(x,deriv=False):
    if(deriv==True):
        return x*(1-x)
    return 1/(1+np.exp(-x))
    
# input dataset
X = np.array([[0,0,1],
              [0,1,1],
              [1,0,1],
              [1,1,1]])
    
# output dataset            
y = np.array([[0,0,1,1]]).T

# seed random numbers to make calculation
# deterministic (just a good practice)
np.random.seed(1)

# initialize weights randomly with mean 0
syn0 = 2*np.random.random((3,1)) - 1

for j in range(100000):

    # forward propagation
    l0 = X
    l1 = sigmoid(np.dot(l0,syn0))

    # how much did we miss?
    l1_error = y - l1
    if (j% 10000) == 0:
        print("Error:" + str(np.mean(np.abs(l1_error))))

    # multiply how much we missed by the 
    # slope of the sigmoid at the values in l1
    l1_delta = l1_error * sigmoid(l1,True)

    # update weights
    syn0 += np.dot(l0.T,l1_delta)

print()
print("Prediction after Training:")
print(l1)
Error:0.517208275438
Error:0.00795484506673
Error:0.0055978239634
Error:0.00456086918013
Error:0.00394482243339
Error:0.00352530883742
Error:0.00321610234673
Error:0.00297605968522
Error:0.00278274003022
Error:0.0026227273927

Prediction after Training:
[[ 0.00301758]
 [ 0.00246109]
 [ 0.99799161]
 [ 0.99753723]]

What is the loss function here? How is it calculated?

Any idea how it would perform on non-linearly separable data? How could we test it?

Multilayer perceptron

Let’s use the fact that the sigmoid is differenciable (while the step function we saw in the slides is not). This allows us to add more layers (hence more modelling power).

In [2]:
import numpy as np

def sigmoid(x,deriv=False):
	if(deriv==True):
	    return x*(1-x)

	return 1/(1+np.exp(-x))
    
X = np.array([[0,0,1],
              [0,1,1],
              [1,0,1],
              [1,1,1]])
                
y = np.array([[0],
			  [1],
			  [1],
			  [0]])

np.random.seed(1)

# randomly initialize our weights with mean 0
syn0 = 2*np.random.random((3,4)) - 1
syn1 = 2*np.random.random((4,1)) - 1

for j in range(100000):

	# Feed forward through layers 0, 1, and 2
    l0 = X
    l1 = sigmoid(np.dot(l0,syn0))
    l2 = sigmoid(np.dot(l1,syn1))

    # how much did we miss the target value?
    l2_error = y - l2
    
    if (j% 10000) == 0:
        print("Error:" + str(np.mean(np.abs(l2_error))))
        
    # in what direction is the target value?
    # were we really sure? if so, don't change too much.
    l2_delta = l2_error*sigmoid(l2,deriv=True)

    # how much did each l1 value contribute to the l2 error (according to the weights)?
    l1_error = l2_delta.dot(syn1.T)
    
    # in what direction is the target l1?
    # were we really sure? if so, don't change too much.
    l1_delta = l1_error * sigmoid(l1,deriv=True)

    syn1 += l1.T.dot(l2_delta)
    syn0 += l0.T.dot(l1_delta)
    
print()
print(l2)
Error:0.496410031903
Error:0.00858452565325
Error:0.00578945986251
Error:0.00462917677677
Error:0.00395876528027
Error:0.00351012256786
Error:0.00318350238587
Error:0.00293230634228
Error:0.00273150641821
Error:0.00256631724004

[[ 0.00199094]
 [ 0.99751458]
 [ 0.99771098]
 [ 0.00294418]]

Setting up the environment

We have done toy examples for feedforward networks. Things quickly become complicated, so let’s go deeper by relying on high-level frameworks: TensorFlow and Keras. Most technicalities are thus avoided so that you can directly play with networks.

In [ ]:
!conda install tensorflow keras
In [3]:
import tensorflow as tf
import keras
/Users/syedather/.local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/__init__.py:1067: UserWarning: Duplicate key in file "/Users/syedather/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc", line #2
  (fname, cnt))
Using TensorFlow backend.
In [4]:
hello = tf.constant('Hello, TensorFlow!')
sess = tf.Session()
print(sess.run(hello))
b'Hello, TensorFlow!'

CNNs

We are going to use the MNIST dataset for our first task. The code below loads the dataset and shows one training example and its label.

In [5]:
from __future__ import print_function
import keras
from keras.datasets import mnist
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Flatten
from keras.layers import Conv2D, MaxPooling2D
from keras import backend as K
from pylab import *

# the data, split between train and test sets
(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data()

print("The first training instance is labeled as: "+str(y_train[0]))
The first training instance is labeled as: 5
In [6]:
figure(1)
imshow(x_train[0], interpolation='nearest')
Out[6]:
<matplotlib.image.AxesImage at 0x1259b2320>

Now study the following code. What is the network we use? How many layers? What hyper parameters?

In [7]:
# Setup some hyper parameters
batch_size = 128
num_classes = 10
epochs = 15

# input image dimensions
img_rows, img_cols = 28, 28

# This is some technicality regarding Keras' dataset
if K.image_data_format() == 'channels_first':
    x_train = x_train.reshape(x_train.shape[0], 1, img_rows, img_cols)
    x_test = x_test.reshape(x_test.shape[0], 1, img_rows, img_cols)
    input_shape = (1, img_rows, img_cols)
else:
    x_train = x_train.reshape(x_train.shape[0], img_rows, img_cols, 1)
    x_test = x_test.reshape(x_test.shape[0], img_rows, img_cols, 1)
    input_shape = (img_rows, img_cols, 1)

# We convert the matrices to floats as we will use real numbers
x_train = x_train.astype('float32')[:1000]
x_test = x_test.astype('float32')[:200]
x_train /= 255
x_test /= 255
print('x_train shape:', x_train.shape)
print(x_train.shape[0], 'train samples')
print(x_test.shape[0], 'test samples')

# convert class vectors to binary class matrices
y_train = keras.utils.to_categorical(y_train, num_classes)[:1000]
y_test = keras.utils.to_categorical(y_test, num_classes)[:200]


# Build network
model = Sequential()
model.add(Conv2D(32, kernel_size=(3, 3),
                 activation='relu',
                 input_shape=input_shape))
model.add(Conv2D(64, (3, 3), activation='relu'))
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2, 2)))
# model.add(Dropout(0.25))
model.add(Flatten())
model.add(Dense(128, activation='relu'))
# model.add(Dropout(0.5))
model.add(Dense(num_classes, activation='softmax'))

model.compile(loss=keras.losses.categorical_crossentropy,
              optimizer=keras.optimizers.Adam(),
              metrics=['accuracy'])

# Train
model.fit(x_train, y_train,
          batch_size=batch_size,
          epochs=epochs,
          verbose=1,
          validation_data=(x_test, y_test))

# Evaluate on test data
score = model.evaluate(x_test, y_test, verbose=0)
print()
print('Test loss:', score[0])
print('Test accuracy:', score[1])

# Evaluate on training data
score = model.evaluate(x_train, y_train, verbose=0)
print()
print('Train loss:', score[0])
print('Train accuracy:', score[1])
x_train shape: (1000, 28, 28, 1)
1000 train samples
200 test samples
Train on 1000 samples, validate on 200 samples
Epoch 1/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 4s 4ms/step - loss: 1.7244 - acc: 0.5660 - val_loss: 0.9116 - val_acc: 0.7900
Epoch 2/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 4s 4ms/step - loss: 0.5967 - acc: 0.8320 - val_loss: 0.5148 - val_acc: 0.8100
Epoch 3/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.4394 - acc: 0.8670 - val_loss: 0.3056 - val_acc: 0.8600
Epoch 4/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.3296 - acc: 0.9050 - val_loss: 0.3263 - val_acc: 0.9000
Epoch 5/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.2205 - acc: 0.9360 - val_loss: 0.2092 - val_acc: 0.9200
Epoch 6/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.1684 - acc: 0.9560 - val_loss: 0.1870 - val_acc: 0.9450
Epoch 7/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.1325 - acc: 0.9690 - val_loss: 0.1597 - val_acc: 0.9350
Epoch 8/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0990 - acc: 0.9740 - val_loss: 0.1617 - val_acc: 0.9400
Epoch 9/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0636 - acc: 0.9840 - val_loss: 0.1434 - val_acc: 0.9450
Epoch 10/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0393 - acc: 0.9960 - val_loss: 0.1545 - val_acc: 0.9400
Epoch 11/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0267 - acc: 0.9950 - val_loss: 0.1444 - val_acc: 0.9400
Epoch 12/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 4s 4ms/step - loss: 0.0158 - acc: 1.0000 - val_loss: 0.1642 - val_acc: 0.9350
Epoch 13/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 3s 3ms/step - loss: 0.0090 - acc: 1.0000 - val_loss: 0.1475 - val_acc: 0.9450
Epoch 14/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 4s 4ms/step - loss: 0.0057 - acc: 1.0000 - val_loss: 0.1556 - val_acc: 0.9350
Epoch 15/15
1000/1000 [==============================] - 4s 4ms/step - loss: 0.0041 - acc: 1.0000 - val_loss: 0.1651 - val_acc: 0.9350

Test loss: 0.165074422359
Test accuracy: 0.935

Train loss: 0.00311407446489
Train accuracy: 1.0

Is there anything wrong here?

How do you think a linear classifier performs?

In [8]:
# Setup some hyper parameters
batch_size = 128
num_classes = 10
epochs = 15

# input image dimensions
img_rows, img_cols = 28, 28

# This is some technicality regarding Keras' dataset
if K.image_data_format() == 'channels_first':
    x_train = x_train.reshape(x_train.shape[0], 1, img_rows, img_cols)
    x_test = x_test.reshape(x_test.shape[0], 1, img_rows, img_cols)
    input_shape = (1, img_rows, img_cols)
else:
    x_train = x_train.reshape(x_train.shape[0], img_rows, img_cols, 1)
    x_test = x_test.reshape(x_test.shape[0], img_rows, img_cols, 1)
    input_shape = (img_rows, img_cols, 1)

# We convert the matrices to floats as we will use real numbers
x_train = x_train.astype('float32')[:1000]
x_test = x_test.astype('float32')[:200]
x_train /= 255
x_test /= 255
print('x_train shape:', x_train.shape)
print(x_train.shape[0], 'train samples')
print(x_test.shape[0], 'test samples')

# convert class vectors to binary class matrices
y_train = keras.utils.to_categorical(y_train, num_classes)[:1000]
y_test = keras.utils.to_categorical(y_test, num_classes)[:200]


# Build network
model = Sequential()
model.add(Conv2D(32, kernel_size=(3, 3),
                 activation='relu',
                 input_shape=input_shape))
model.add(Conv2D(64, (3, 3), activation='relu'))
model.add(MaxPooling2D(pool_size=(2, 2)))
model.add(Dropout(0.25))
model.add(Flatten())
model.add(Dense(128, activation='relu'))
model.add(Dropout(0.5))
model.add(Dense(num_classes, activation='softmax'))

model.compile(loss=keras.losses.categorical_crossentropy,
              optimizer=keras.optimizers.Adam(),
              metrics=['accuracy'])

# Train
model.fit(x_train, y_train,
          batch_size=batch_size,
          epochs=epochs,
          verbose=1,
          validation_data=(x_test, y_test))

# Evaluate on test data
score = model.evaluate(x_test, y_test, verbose=0)
print()
print('Test loss:', score[0])
print('Test accuracy:', score[1])

# Evaluate on training data
score = model.evaluate(x_train, y_train, verbose=0)
print()
print('Train loss:', score[0])
print('Train accuracy:', score[1])
x_train shape: (1000, 28, 28, 1)
1000 train samples
200 test samples
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ValueError                                Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-8-a1470fe28059> in <module>()
     53           epochs=epochs,
     54           verbose=1,
---> 55           validation_data=(x_test, y_test))
     56 
     57 # Evaluate on test data

~/anaconda3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/keras/models.py in fit(self, x, y, batch_size, epochs, verbose, callbacks, validation_split, validation_data, shuffle, class_weight, sample_weight, initial_epoch, steps_per_epoch, validation_steps, **kwargs)
    961                               initial_epoch=initial_epoch,
    962                               steps_per_epoch=steps_per_epoch,
--> 963                               validation_steps=validation_steps)
    964 
    965     def evaluate(self, x=None, y=None,

~/anaconda3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/keras/engine/training.py in fit(self, x, y, batch_size, epochs, verbose, callbacks, validation_split, validation_data, shuffle, class_weight, sample_weight, initial_epoch, steps_per_epoch, validation_steps, **kwargs)
   1628             sample_weight=sample_weight,
   1629             class_weight=class_weight,
-> 1630             batch_size=batch_size)
   1631         # Prepare validation data.
   1632         do_validation = False

~/anaconda3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/keras/engine/training.py in _standardize_user_data(self, x, y, sample_weight, class_weight, check_array_lengths, batch_size)
   1478                                     output_shapes,
   1479                                     check_batch_axis=False,
-> 1480                                     exception_prefix='target')
   1481         sample_weights = _standardize_sample_weights(sample_weight,
   1482                                                      self._feed_output_names)

~/anaconda3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/keras/engine/training.py in _standardize_input_data(data, names, shapes, check_batch_axis, exception_prefix)
    111                         ': expected ' + names[i] + ' to have ' +
    112                         str(len(shape)) + ' dimensions, but got array '
--> 113                         'with shape ' + str(data_shape))
    114                 if not check_batch_axis:
    115                     data_shape = data_shape[1:]

ValueError: Error when checking target: expected dense_4 to have 2 dimensions, but got array with shape (1000, 10, 10)

Let’s use this model to predict a value for the first training instance we vizualized.

In [ ]:
print(model.predict(np.expand_dims(x_train[0], axis=0)))

Is the model correct here? What is the output of the network?

RNNs

We will now switch to RNNs. These require more resources, so we can’t do the fanciest applications during the workshop. We will do some sentiment classification of movie reviews.

In [9]:
from __future__ import print_function
import numpy as np
import keras
from keras.preprocessing import sequence
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Embedding, LSTM, Bidirectional
from keras.datasets import imdb

# Number of considered words, based on frequencies
max_features = 20000
# cut texts after this number of words
maxlen = 100
batch_size = 32

print('Loading data...')
(x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = keras.datasets.imdb.load_data(num_words=max_features, index_from=3)

# This is just for pretty printing the sentences...
word_to_id = keras.datasets.imdb.get_word_index()
word_to_id = {k:(v+3) for k,v in word_to_id.items()}
word_to_id["<PAD>"] = 0
word_to_id["<START>"] = 1
word_to_id["<UNK>"] = 2
id_to_word = {value:key for key,value in word_to_id.items()}

print("Here's the input for the first training instance:")
print(' '.join(id_to_word[id] for id in x_train[0] ))
Loading data...
Downloading data from https://s3.amazonaws.com/text-datasets/imdb.npz
17465344/17464789 [==============================] - 2s 0us/step
Downloading data from https://s3.amazonaws.com/text-datasets/imdb_word_index.json
1646592/1641221 [==============================] - 0s 0us/step
Here's the input for the first training instance:
<START> this film was just brilliant casting location scenery story direction everyone's really suited the part they played and you could just imagine being there robert <UNK> is an amazing actor and now the same being director <UNK> father came from the same scottish island as myself so i loved the fact there was a real connection with this film the witty remarks throughout the film were great it was just brilliant so much that i bought the film as soon as it was released for retail and would recommend it to everyone to watch and the fly fishing was amazing really cried at the end it was so sad and you know what they say if you cry at a film it must have been good and this definitely was also congratulations to the two little boy's that played the <UNK> of norman and paul they were just brilliant children are often left out of the praising list i think because the stars that play them all grown up are such a big profile for the whole film but these children are amazing and should be praised for what they have done don't you think the whole story was so lovely because it was true and was someone's life after all that was shared with us all

What do you think about this text? Is it a positive or negative review?

In [10]:
print("Here are the dataset shapes")
print(len(x_train), 'train sequences')
print(len(x_test), 'test sequences')

print("And the input for the first instance is represented as:")
print(x_train[0])
Here are the dataset shapes
25000 train sequences
25000 test sequences
And the input for the first instance is represented as:
[1, 14, 22, 16, 43, 530, 973, 1622, 1385, 65, 458, 4468, 66, 3941, 4, 173, 36, 256, 5, 25, 100, 43, 838, 112, 50, 670, 2, 9, 35, 480, 284, 5, 150, 4, 172, 112, 167, 2, 336, 385, 39, 4, 172, 4536, 1111, 17, 546, 38, 13, 447, 4, 192, 50, 16, 6, 147, 2025, 19, 14, 22, 4, 1920, 4613, 469, 4, 22, 71, 87, 12, 16, 43, 530, 38, 76, 15, 13, 1247, 4, 22, 17, 515, 17, 12, 16, 626, 18, 19193, 5, 62, 386, 12, 8, 316, 8, 106, 5, 4, 2223, 5244, 16, 480, 66, 3785, 33, 4, 130, 12, 16, 38, 619, 5, 25, 124, 51, 36, 135, 48, 25, 1415, 33, 6, 22, 12, 215, 28, 77, 52, 5, 14, 407, 16, 82, 10311, 8, 4, 107, 117, 5952, 15, 256, 4, 2, 7, 3766, 5, 723, 36, 71, 43, 530, 476, 26, 400, 317, 46, 7, 4, 12118, 1029, 13, 104, 88, 4, 381, 15, 297, 98, 32, 2071, 56, 26, 141, 6, 194, 7486, 18, 4, 226, 22, 21, 134, 476, 26, 480, 5, 144, 30, 5535, 18, 51, 36, 28, 224, 92, 25, 104, 4, 226, 65, 16, 38, 1334, 88, 12, 16, 283, 5, 16, 4472, 113, 103, 32, 15, 16, 5345, 19, 178, 32]

What do these numbers represent? Is there any limitation you can imagine coming from this?

In [11]:
print('Pad sequences (samples x time)')
x_train = sequence.pad_sequences(x_train, maxlen=maxlen)[:5000]
x_test = sequence.pad_sequences(x_test, maxlen=maxlen)[:5000]
print('x_train shape:', x_train.shape)
print('x_test shape:', x_test.shape)
y_train = np.array(y_train)[:5000]
y_test = np.array(y_test)[:5000]

model = Sequential()
model.add(Embedding(max_features, 128, input_length=maxlen))
model.add(Bidirectional(LSTM(64)))
model.add(Dropout(0.5))
model.add(Dense(1, activation='sigmoid'))

model.compile('adam', 'binary_crossentropy', metrics=['accuracy'])

print('Train...')
model.fit(x_train, y_train,
          batch_size=batch_size,
          epochs=4,
          validation_data=[x_test, y_test])
Pad sequences (samples x time)
x_train shape: (5000, 100)
x_test shape: (5000, 100)
Train...
Train on 5000 samples, validate on 5000 samples
Epoch 1/4
5000/5000 [==============================] - 54s 11ms/step - loss: 0.6032 - acc: 0.6570 - val_loss: 0.4283 - val_acc: 0.8056
Epoch 2/4
5000/5000 [==============================] - 54s 11ms/step - loss: 0.2761 - acc: 0.8918 - val_loss: 0.4403 - val_acc: 0.7948
Epoch 3/4
5000/5000 [==============================] - 61s 12ms/step - loss: 0.1101 - acc: 0.9670 - val_loss: 0.6366 - val_acc: 0.8026
Epoch 4/4
5000/5000 [==============================] - 56s 11ms/step - loss: 0.0478 - acc: 0.9868 - val_loss: 0.6637 - val_acc: 0.7954
Out[11]:
<keras.callbacks.History at 0x1392d76d8>
In [12]:
print("The neural net predicts that the first instance sentiment is:")
print(model.predict(np.expand_dims(x_train[0], axis=0)))
The neural net predicts that the first instance sentiment is:
[[ 0.99445081]]

Remarks? Comments?

How do the training scores compare to the test scores? How can we improve this? What are the current limitations?

This RNN use case takes more time to train but it is definitely more impressive. We will model the language, by training on a novel. For each (set of) word(s) in the novel, the objective is to predict the following word. This can be done on any text, and we don’t need annotated data – the text itself is enough.

Have a look at the following piece of code and try to understand what it does. Then, run it and see the network generating text! At first, the output is not meaningful, but it becomes so over time. This is the magic I was referring to.

Beware: this will take longer to run on a CPU. A GPU is recommended, but you can still try to run it for a while to see the predictions evolve. On my laptop, an epoch takes 6mins so the full training takes 6hrs. About 20 epochs are required for the generated text to be somewhat meaningful.

Note, however, that although this seems long, training actual deep learning models for concrete tasks takes days, even on multiple GPUs. This is mostly because of the data size and the much deeper networks.

In [ ]:
from __future__ import print_function
from keras.callbacks import LambdaCallback
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense, Activation
from keras.layers import LSTM
from keras.optimizers import RMSprop
from keras.utils.data_utils import get_file
import numpy as np
import random
import sys
import io

# We load a text from Nietzsche
path = get_file('nietzsche.txt', origin='https://s3.amazonaws.com/text-datasets/nietzsche.txt')
with io.open(path, encoding='utf-8') as f:
    text = f.read().lower()
print('corpus length:', len(text))

# We create dictionaries of character > index and the other way around
chars = sorted(list(set(text)))
print('total chars:', len(chars))
char_indices = dict((c, i) for i, c in enumerate(chars))
indices_char = dict((i, c) for i, c in enumerate(chars))

# cut the text in semi-redundant sequences of maxlen characters
maxlen = 40
step = 3
sentences = []
next_chars = []
for i in range(0, len(text) - maxlen, step):
    sentences.append(text[i: i + maxlen])
    next_chars.append(text[i + maxlen])
print('nb sequences:', len(sentences))

print('Vectorization...')
x = np.zeros((len(sentences), maxlen, len(chars)), dtype=np.bool)
y = np.zeros((len(sentences), len(chars)), dtype=np.bool)
for i, sentence in enumerate(sentences):
    for t, char in enumerate(sentence):
        x[i, t, char_indices[char]] = 1
    y[i, char_indices[next_chars[i]]] = 1


# build the model: a single LSTM
print('Build model...')
model = Sequential()
model.add(LSTM(128, input_shape=(maxlen, len(chars))))
model.add(Dense(len(chars)))
model.add(Activation('softmax'))

optimizer = RMSprop(lr=0.01)
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer=optimizer)


def sample(preds, temperature=1.0):
    # helper function to sample an index from a probability array
    preds = np.asarray(preds).astype('float64')
    preds = np.log(preds) / temperature
    exp_preds = np.exp(preds)
    preds = exp_preds / np.sum(exp_preds)
    probas = np.random.multinomial(1, preds, 1)
    return np.argmax(probas)


def on_epoch_end(epoch, logs):
    # Function invoked at end of each epoch. Prints generated text.
    print()
    print('----- Generating text after Epoch: %d' % epoch)

    start_index = random.randint(0, len(text) - maxlen - 1)
    for diversity in [0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2]:
        print('----- diversity:', diversity)

        generated = ''
        sentence = text[start_index: start_index + maxlen]
        generated += sentence
        print('----- Generating with seed: "' + sentence + '"')
        sys.stdout.write(generated)

        for i in range(400):
            x_pred = np.zeros((1, maxlen, len(chars)))
            for t, char in enumerate(sentence):
                x_pred[0, t, char_indices[char]] = 1.

            preds = model.predict(x_pred, verbose=0)[0]
            next_index = sample(preds, diversity)
            next_char = indices_char[next_index]

            generated += next_char
            sentence = sentence[1:] + next_char

            sys.stdout.write(next_char)
            sys.stdout.flush()
        print()

print_callback = LambdaCallback(on_epoch_end=on_epoch_end)

model.fit(x, y,
          batch_size=128,
          epochs=60,
          callbacks=[print_callback])
Downloading data from https://s3.amazonaws.com/text-datasets/nietzsche.txt
606208/600901 [==============================] - 0s 0us/step
corpus length: 600893
total chars: 57
nb sequences: 200285
Vectorization...
Build model...
Epoch 1/60
200285/200285 [==============================] - 281s 1ms/step - loss: 1.9553

----- Generating text after Epoch: 0
----- diversity: 0.2
----- Generating with seed: "to
agree with many people. "good" is no "
to
agree with many people. "good" is no and it is the the of the same the of the sention of the strenge of the most the self-our of the inderent that the sensive indeed the one of the constitute of the most of the semple of the desire of the sensive of the most of the semple of the sempathy of the one of the into the every to a soul of the some of the persent the free of the semple of the most of the sention of the of the spiritual the 
----- diversity: 0.5
----- Generating with seed: "to
agree with many people. "good" is no "
to
agree with many people. "good" is no may a suptimes and also orage mankind the one of indeed of one streng the possible the sensition and the inderenation of a sul the in a sould be the orting a solitiarity of religions in a man of such and a scient, in every of and the self-to and of a revilued it is the most in the indeed, and it is assual that the ord of the of the distiture in its all the manter of the soul permans the decours of
----- diversity: 1.0
----- Generating with seed: "to
agree with many people. "good" is no "
to
agree with many people. "good" is no causest and hew the fown of every groktulr
destined a the art it noteriness of one it all and
and cothinded of that rendercaterfroe to doe," in the pational the is the onl yutre
allor upitsoon,--one
viburan mused a "master in the that niver if
a pridicle quesiles of
the shoold enss nowxing to
feef ma.t--wute disequerly that then her rewadd finale the eeblive alse rusurefver" a selovery catte he re
----- diversity: 1.2
----- Generating with seed: "to
agree with many people. "good" is no "
to
agree with many people. "good" is no likeurenes, it is novamentstisuser'stone, indos paces. fund, wethel feel the
que let doee new eveny that is that the catel. thotgy is
within ceoks of theregeritades) and itwas brutmes ageteron
clyrelogilabl freephi; its. by an? andaver happ
one of his absuman artificss? itself old a
ooker himsood and bus hray
fined in smuch is sudtirers of rerarder from and
afutty
mest utfered with to "bewnook one
Epoch 2/60
 81664/200285 [===========>..................] - ETA: 2:37 - loss: 1.6395

Web Scraping with Python Made Easy

Imagine you run a business selling shoes online and wanted to monitor how your competitors price their products. You could spend hours a day clicking through page after page or write a script for a web bot, an automated piece of software that keeps track a site’s updates. That’s where web scraping comes in.

Scraping websites lets you extract information from hundreds or thousands of webpages at once. You can search websites like Indeed for job opportunities or Twitter for tweets. In this gentle introduction to web scraping, we’ll go over the basic code to scrape websites such that anyone, regardless of background, can extract and analyze these kinds of results.

Getting Started

Using my GitHub repository on web scraping, you can install the software and run the scripts as instructed. Click on the src directory on the repository page to see the README.md file that explains each script and how to run them.

Examining the Site

You can use a sitemap file to located where websites upload content without crawling every single web page. Here’s a sample one. You can also find out how large a site is and how much information you can actually extract from it. You can search a site using Google’s Advanced Search to figure out how many pages you may need to scrape. This will come in handy when creating a web scraper that may need to pause for updates or act in a different manner after reaching a certain number of pages.

You can also run the identify.py script in the src directory to figure out more information bout how each site was built. This should give info about the frameworks, programming languages, and servers used in building each website as well as the registered owner for the domain. This also uses robotparser to check for restrictions.

Many websites have a robots.txt file with crawling restrictions. Make sure you check out this file for a website for more information about how to crawl a website or any rules that you should follow. The sample protocol can be found here.

Crawling a Site

There are three general approaches to crawling a site: Crawling a sitemap, Iterating through an ID for each webpage, and following webpage links. download.py shows how to download a webpage with methods of sitemap crawling, results.py shows you how to scrape those results while iterating through webpage IDs, and indeedScrape.py uses the webpage links for crawling. download.py also contains information on inserting delays, returning a list of links from HTML, and supporting proxies that can let you access websites through blocked requests.

Scraping the Data

In the file compare.py, you can compare the efficiency of the three web scraping methods.

You can use regular expressions (known as regex or regexp) to perform neat tricks with text for getting information from websites. The script regex.py shows how this is done.

You can also use the browser extension Firebug Lite to get information from a webpage. In Chrome, you can click View >> Developer >> View Source to get the source behind a webpage.

Beautiful Soup, one of the requried packages to run indeedScrape.py, parses a webpage and provides a convenient interface to navigate the content, as shown in bs4test.py. Lxml also does this in lxmltest.py. A comparison of these three scraping methods are in the following table.

Scraping methodPerformanceEase of useEase of install
RegexFastHardEasy
Beautiful SoupSlowEasyEasy
lxmlFastEasyHard

The callback.py script lets you scrape data and save it to an output .csv file.

Caching Downloads

Caching crawled webpages lets you store them in a manageablae format while only having to download them once. In download.py, there’s a python class Downloader that shows how to cache URLs after downloading their webpages. cache.py has a python class that maps a URL to a filename when caching.

Depending on which operating system you’re using, there’s a limit to how much you can cache.

Operating systemFile systemInvalid filename charactersMax filename length
LinuxExt3/Ext4/, \0255 bytes
OS X HFS Plus:, \0255 UT-16 code units
WindowsNTFS \, /, ?, :, *, >, <, |255 characters

Though cache.py is easy to use, you can take the hash of the URL itself to use as the filename to ensure your files directly map to the URLs of the saved cache. Using MongoDB, you can build ontop of the current file system database system and avoid the file system limitations. This method is found in mongocache.py using pymongo, a Python wrapper for MongoDB.

Test out the other scripts such as alexacb.py for downloading information on the top sites by Alexa ranking. mongoqueue.py has functionality for queueing the MongoDB inquiries that can be imported to other scripts.

You can work with dynamic webpages using the code from browserrender.py. The majority of leading websites using JavScript for functionality, meaning you can’t view all their content in barebones HTML.

Science writing resources

Table of contents

Getting started

Books and articles

  • Baron, Nancy, Escape from the Ivory Tower, Island Press, 2010.
  • Blum, Deborah and Mary Knudson, eds.,* A Field Guide for Science Writers: The Official Guide of the National Association of Science Writers*, Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Cohn, Victor; Cope, Lew; News and Numbers: A Guide to Reporting Statistical Claims and Controversies in Health and Related Fields, 2nd ed. (2001).
  • Dean, Cornelia, Am I Making Myself Clear?, Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Hancock, Elise, Ideas Into Words: Mastering the Craft of Science Writing
  • Hayden, Thomas and Michelle Nijhuis, eds., The Science Writers’ Handbook: Everything you Need to Know to Pitch, Publish, and Prosper in the Digital Age. Writers of SciLance.
  • Meredith, Dennis, Explaining Research: How to Reach Key Audiences to Advance Your Work, Oxford University Press, 2010. http://dennismeredith.com/explaining-research_397.html
  • Nelkin, Dorothy, Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology (1995, paperback)
  • Strunk, William and E.B. White, Elements of Style.
  • Zinssner, William, On Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Writing Nonfiction 30th anniversary edition (2006, paperback).

Organizations

Graduate programs in science writing and journalism

Internships, fellowships, and other opportunities

Publications

List of FOIA contacts

ComponentDepartmentNameTitleEmailAddressTelephoneFax
Administrative Conference of the United StatesAdministrative Conference of the United StatesShawne McGibbon, FOIA Officer, Suite 706 South, 1120 20th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036202-480-2080202-386-7190
Administrative Conference of the United StatesAdministrative Conference of the United StatesDavid PritzkerShawne McGibbon, FOIA Officer, Suite 706 South, 1120 20th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036202-480-2080202-386-7190
Advisory Council on Historic PreservationAdvisory Council on Historic PreservationFreedom of Information Act Officer Advisory Council on Historic Preservation , 401 F Street, NW, Suite 308 , Washington, DC 20001(202) 517-0200
American Battle Monuments CommissionAmerican Battle Monuments CommissionBeatriz CollazoFOIA Assistantfoia@abmc.gov2300 Clarendon Boulevard, Suite 500, Attn: FOIA, Arlington, VA 22201703-696-8384
American Battle Monuments CommissionAmerican Battle Monuments CommissionJennifer LiChief Information Officerlij@abmc.gov2300 Clarendon Boulevard, Suite 500, Attn: FOIA, Arlington, VA 22201703-696-6781
Appraisal SubcommitteeAppraisal SubcommitteeAlice M. Ritter, FOIA Officer, 1325 G Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005202-289-2735202-289-4101
Appraisal SubcommitteeAppraisal SubcommitteeJames R. ParkAlice M. Ritter, FOIA Officer, 1325 G Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005202-289-2735202-289-4101
Armed Forces Retirement HomeArmed Forces Retirement HomeChristopher KellyPublic Affairs Officerchristopher.kelly@afrh.govJaqueline Parrish, FOIA Officer, Box 580, 3700 North Capitol Street NW, P.O. Box 2875, Washington, DC 20011202-541-7550202-541-7508
Armed Forces Retirement HomeArmed Forces Retirement HomeJacqueline ParrishJaqueline Parrish, FOIA Officer, Box 580, 3700 North Capitol Street NW, P.O. Box 2875, Washington, DC 20011202-541-7554202-541-7508
Central Intelligence AgencyCentral Intelligence AgencyInformation and Privacy Coordinator, Central Intelligence Agency, , Washington, DC 20505703-613-1287703-613-3007
Central Intelligence AgencyCentral Intelligence AgencyE. Riggs MonfortInformation and Privacy Coordinator, Central Intelligence Agency, , Washington, DC 20505703-613-1287703-613-3007
U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB)Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation BoardMichele Bouziane, CSB FOIA Officer, Suite 910, 1750 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006202-261-7619202-974-7650
U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB)Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation BoardThomas A. GoonanChief FOIA OfficerThomas.Goonan@csb.govMichele Bouziane, CSB FOIA Officer, Suite 910, 1750 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006202-261-7625202-974-7650
Commission of Fine ArtsCommission of Fine ArtsChief FOIA Officer, 401 F St., NW, Suite 312, Washington, DC 20001202-504-2200202-504-2195
Commission of Fine ArtsCommission of Fine ArtsSusan RaposaTechnical Information Specialistfoia@cfa.govChief FOIA Officer, 401 F St., NW, Suite 312, Washington, DC 20001202-504-2200202-504-2195
Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely DisabledCommittee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely DisabledBarry LinebackTina Ballard, Executive Director, Suite 715, 1401 S. Clark St, Arlington, VA 22202-4302703-603-7740
Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely DisabledCommittee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely DisabledWakita WilsonTina Ballard, Executive Director, Suite 715, 1401 S. Clark St, Arlington, VA 22202-4302703-603-7740
Commodity Futures Trading CommissionCommodity Futures Trading CommissionJonathan Van DorenPublic LiaisonFOIA Contact, CFTC FOIA Office, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155 21st Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20581202-418-5505202-418-5524
Commodity Futures Trading CommissionCommodity Futures Trading CommissionRosemary BajorekAttorney-AdvisorFOIA Contact, CFTC FOIA Office, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155 21st Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20581202-418-5912202-418-5524
Bureau of Consumer Financial ProtectionConsumer Financial Protection BureauCFPB, Attn: Chief FOIA Officer, 1700 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20552855-329-3642
Bureau of Consumer Financial ProtectionConsumer Financial Protection BureauFOIA Public LiaisonFOIA Service CenterCFPB_FOIA@consumerfinance.govCFPB, Attn: Chief FOIA Officer, 1700 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20552855-444-3642855-329-3642
Bureau of Consumer Financial ProtectionConsumer Financial Protection BureauRaynell LazierFOIA ManagerCFPB_FOIA@consumerfinance.govCFPB, Attn: Chief FOIA Officer, 1700 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20552855-444-3642855-329-3642
Consumer Product Safety CommissionConsumer Product Safety CommissionMs. Abioye E. MosheimChief FOIA Officer / Assistant General Counselamosheim@cpsc.govU.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Room 820, Bethesda, MD 20814-44081-800-638-2772301-504-0127
Consumer Product Safety CommissionConsumer Product Safety CommissionRobert DaltonAttorney Advisorrdalton@cpsc.govU.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Room 820, Bethesda, MD 20814-4408800-638-2772301-504-0127
Corporation for National and Community ServiceCorporation for National and Community ServiceStephanie A. Soper, Freedom of Information Act Officer, Office of the General Counsel, Room 2257, 250 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20525202-606-3467
Corporation for National and Community ServiceCorporation for National and Community ServiceAshley PresleyFOIA Public Liaisonapresley@cns.govStephanie A. Soper, Freedom of Information Act Officer, Office of the General Counsel, Room 2257, 250 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20525202-606-6972202-606-3467
Corporation for National and Community ServiceCorporation for National and Community ServiceStephanie A. SoperStephanie A. Soper, Freedom of Information Act Officer, Office of the General Counsel, Room 2257, 250 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20525202-606-6747202-606-3467
Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and EfficiencyCouncil of the Inspectors General on Integrity and EfficiencyFOIA Contact, Suite 825, 1717 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006202-616-1210202-254-0162
Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and EfficiencyCouncil of the Inspectors General on Integrity and EfficiencyDeborah WallerSupervisory Government Information Specialist, Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of JusticeFOIA Contact, Suite 825, 1717 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006202-616-0646202-254-0162
Council on Environmental QualityCouncil on Environmental QualityHoward Sun, FOIA Public Liaison, 730 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20503202-456-3621202-395-4205
Council on Environmental QualityCouncil on Environmental QualityHoward SunFOIA Public Liaisonefoia@ceq.eop.govHoward Sun, FOIA Public Liaison, 730 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20503202-456-3621202-395-4205
Court Services and Offender Supervision AgencyCourt Services and Offender Supervision AgencyJeanean West, Government Information Specialist, Office of the General Counsel, 633 Indiana Avenue, NW, 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20004-2902202-220-5350
Court Services and Offender Supervision AgencyCourt Services and Offender Supervision AgencyJeanean West, Government Information Specialist, Office of the General Counsel, 633 Indiana Avenue, NW, 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20004-2902202-220-5300202-220-5350
Court Services and Offender Supervision AgencyCourt Services and Offender Supervision AgencyDenicka KeithGovernment Information Specialistdenicka.keith@csosa.govJeanean West, Government Information Specialist, Office of the General Counsel, 633 Indiana Avenue, NW, 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20004-2902202-220-5300202-220-5350
Court Services and Offender Supervision AgencyCourt Services and Offender Supervision AgencyJeanean WestFOIA Officerjeanean.west@csosa.govJeanean West, Government Information Specialist, Office of the General Counsel, 633 Indiana Avenue, NW, 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20004-2902202-220-5748202-220-5350
Court Services and Offender Supervision AgencyCourt Services and Offender Supervision AgencyKwadwo KankamAssistant General Counselkwadwo.kankam@csosa.govJeanean West, Government Information Specialist, Office of the General Counsel, 633 Indiana Avenue, NW, 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20004-2902202-220-5499202-220-5350
Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety BoardDefense Nuclear Facilities Safety BoardGlenn SklarChief FOIA OfficerInformation/FOIA Officer, 625 Indiana Avenue, NW Suite 700, Washington, DC 200042022086518
Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety BoardDefense Nuclear Facilities Safety BoardPaul WilsonFOIA Public LiasonInformation/FOIA Officer, 625 Indiana Avenue, NW Suite 700, Washington, DC 20004800-788-4016, 202-694-70002022086518
Denali CommissionDenali CommissionAnne StanislowskiAdministrative Specialistastanislowski@denali.govJohn Whittington, FOIA Officer, 510 L Street Ste 410, Anchorage, AK 99501907-271-3011
Denali CommissionDenali CommissionJohn WhittingtonJohn Whittington, FOIA Officer, 510 L Street Ste 410, Anchorage, AK 99501907-271-1640
Agricultural Marketing ServiceDepartment of AgricultureMark R. BrookFOIA Officerams.foia@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 2095, Washington, DC 20250(202) 205-0288
Agricultural Marketing ServiceDepartment of AgricultureWilliam D. Allenams.foia@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 2095, Washington, DC 20250(202) 720-3785
Animal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceDepartment of AgricultureJames IvyFOIA.Officer@aphis.usda.gov4700 River Road, Unit 50, Riverdale, MD 20737(202) 799-7086
Animal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceDepartment of AgricultureTonya WoodsFOIA.Officer@aphis.usda.gov4700 River Road, Unit 50, Riverdale, MD 20737(301) 851-4076
Departmental AdministrationDepartment of AgricultureAlexis Gravesusdafoia@ocio.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 4101, Washington, DC 20250(202) 690-3318
Departmental AdministrationDepartment of AgricultureRavoyne PaytonRavoyne.Payton@ocio.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 4101, Washington, DC 20250(202) 720-8833
Farm Service AgencyDepartment of AgriculturePatrick McLoughlinPatrick.McLoughlin@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 4078, Washington, DC 20250(202) 590-6168202-720-2979
Farm Service AgencyDepartment of AgriculturePhilip Buchanphilip.buchan@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 4078, Washington, DC 20250(301) 504-1701202-720-2979
Food and Nutrition Consumer ServiceDepartment of AgricultureJaime GarrettActing FOIA OfficerFOIA@fns.usda.gov3101 Park Center Drive, , Alexandria, VA 22302703-305-2464
Food and Nutrition Consumer ServiceDepartment of AgricultureJaime GarrettFOIA Public LiaisonFOIA@fns.usda.gov3101 Park Center Drive, , Alexandria, VA 22302703-305-2464
Food Safety and Inspection ServiceDepartment of AgricultureArianne Perkinsfsis.foia@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 1170, Washington, DC 20250(202) 690-2760
Food Safety and Inspection ServiceDepartment of AgricultureArianne Perkinsfsis.foia@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 1170, Washington, DC 20250(202) 690-2760
Foreign Agricultural ServiceDepartment of AgricultureEllen DoughertyEllen.Dougherty@fas.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Stop 1004, Washington, DC 20250(202) 720-7115
Foreign Agricultural ServiceDepartment of AgricultureRochelle FosterRochelle.Foster@fas.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Stop 1004, Washington, DC 20250(202)720-2936
Forest ServiceDepartment of AgricultureMargaret ScofieldActing FOIA Officermargaret.scofield@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, Yates Building, Stop 1143, Washington, DC 20250202-401-4410
Forest ServiceDepartment of AgricultureVacant1400 Independence Avenue SW, Yates Building, Stop 1143, Washington, DC 20250
National Appeals DivisionDepartment of AgricultureBrenda V. SeegarsBrenda.Seegars@nad.usda.gov3101 Park Center Drive, Suite 1100, Alexandria, VA 22302(703) 305-1164
National Appeals DivisionDepartment of AgricultureVacant3101 Park Center Drive, Suite 1100, Alexandria, VA 22302
National Finance CenterDepartment of AgricultureAlison Hemstreetalison.hemstreet@nfc.usda.govP.O. Box 60000, , New Orleans, LA 70160(504) 426-7910
Natural Resources Conservation ServiceDepartment of AgriculturePatrick McLoughlinPatrick.McLoughlin@usda.gov375 Jackson Street, Suite 600, St. Paul, MN 55101(202) 590-6168
Natural Resources Conservation ServiceDepartment of AgriculturePhilip Buchanphilip.buchan@usda.gov375 Jackson Street, Suite 600, St. Paul, MN 55101(301) 504-1701
Office of Budget & Program AnalysisDepartment of AgricultureAndrew PerryOBPA-FOIA@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, Whitten Building, Room 141-E, Washington, DC 20250(202) 720-1276
Office of Budget & Program AnalysisDepartment of AgricultureJulie HetrickOBPA-FOIA@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, Whitten Building, Room 141-E, Washington, DC 20250(202) 720-1269
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil RightsDepartment of AgricultureDeb HamiltonDeb.Hamilton@usda.gov355 E Street SW, Patriot Plaza III, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20024(202) 690-1610
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Civil RightsDepartment of AgricultureLisa ColemanActing FOIA OfficerLisa.Coleman@usda.gov355 E Street SW, Patriot Plaza III, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20024(202) 720-1772
Office of the Chief Financial OfficerDepartment of AgricultureAndrea Prayerandrea.prayer@cfo.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue SW, South Building, Room 3420B, Washington, DC 20250(202) 690-3720
Office of the General CounselDepartment of AgricultureAlexis Gravesusdafoia@ocio.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Room 2025-A, Washington, DC 20250(202) 690-3318
Office of the General CounselDepartment of AgricultureCamille AponteFOIA Public Liaisoncamille.aponte@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Room 2025-A, Washington, DC 20250202-694-5260
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of AgricultureAlison DeckerFOIASTAFF@oig.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Whitten Building, Room 441-E, Washington, DC 20250(202) 720-8112
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of AgricultureMichael Schierlohmichael.schierloh@oig.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Whitten Building, Room 441-E, Washington, DC 20250(202) 205-9718
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of AgricultureAlexis Gravesusdafoia@ocio.usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Room 4101, Washington, DC 20250(202) 690-3318
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of AgricultureCamille AponteFOIA Public Liaisoncamille.aponte@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Room 4101, Washington, DC 20250202-694-5260
Research, Education & EconomicsDepartment of AgricultureAlexis Gravesusdafoia@ocio.usda.gov5601 Sunnyside Avenue, Room 1-2248, Beltsville, MD 20705(202) 690-3318
Research, Education & EconomicsDepartment of AgricultureSharon DrummREEFOIA@ars.usda.gov5601 Sunnyside Avenue, Room 1-2248, Beltsville, MD 20705(301) 504-1655
Risk Management AgencyDepartment of AgriculturePatrick McLoughlinPatrick.McLoughlin@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Room 6603, Washington, DC 20250(202) 590-6168
Risk Management AgencyDepartment of AgriculturePhilip Buchanphilip.buchan@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Room 6603, Washington, DC 20250(301) 504-1701
Rural DevelopmentDepartment of AgricultureJulie HendersonActing FOIA Public Liaisonjulie.henderson@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Stop 0706, Washington, DC 20250(202) 692-0010
Rural DevelopmentDepartment of AgricultureLolita BarnesFOIA Officerlolita.barnes@usda.gov1400 Independence Avenue, SW, South Building, Stop 0706, Washington, DC 20250(202) 692-0004
Bureau of Economic AnalysisDepartment of CommerceDondi Staunton, FOIA Officer, Room 8K114F, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC 20233301-278-9798
Bureau of Economic AnalysisDepartment of CommerceDondi StauntonDondi Staunton, FOIA Officer, Room 8K114F, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC 20233
Bureau of Economic AnalysisDepartment of CommerceDondi StauntonDondi Staunton, FOIA Officer, Room 8K114F, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC 20233301-278-9798
Bureau of Industry and SecurityDepartment of CommerceGrace Agyekum, FOIA Officer, Room 6622, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-0953202-482-0800
Bureau of Industry and SecurityDepartment of CommerceGrace AgyekumGrace Agyekum, FOIA Officer, Room 6622, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-7893202-482-0800
Bureau of Industry and SecurityDepartment of CommerceGrace AgyekumGrace Agyekum, FOIA Officer, Room 6622, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-7893202-482-0800
Census BureauDepartment of CommerceVernon Curry, FOIA Officer, Room 3J424A, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC 20233-3700301-763-7127301-763-6239
Census BureauDepartment of CommerceVernon CurryVernon Curry, FOIA Officer, Room 3J424A, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC 20233-3700301-763-6239
Census BureauDepartment of CommerceVernon CurryVernon Curry, FOIA Officer, Room 3J424A, 4600 Silver Hill Road, Washington, DC 20233-3700301-763-6239
Departmental OfficesDepartment of CommerceCarrie Hyde-Michaels, Deputy Chief FOIA Officer, Office of Privacy and Open Government, Room 61013, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-3842
Departmental OfficesDepartment of CommerceCarrie Hyde-MichaelsDeputy Chief FOIA Officerchyde-michaels@doc.govCarrie Hyde-Michaels, Deputy Chief FOIA Officer, Office of Privacy and Open Government, Room 61013, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-3842
Departmental OfficesDepartment of CommerceCarrie Hyde-MichaelsCarrie Hyde-Michaels, Deputy Chief FOIA Officer, Office of Privacy and Open Government, Room 61013, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230
Economic Development AdministrationDepartment of CommerceJeffrey Roberson, Acting FOIA Officer, Room 72023, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-3085202-482-5671
Economic Development AdministrationDepartment of CommerceJeffrey RobersonJeffrey Roberson, Acting FOIA Officer, Room 72023, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-1315202-482-5671
Economic Development AdministrationDepartment of CommerceJeffrey RobersonJeffrey Roberson, Acting FOIA Officer, Room 72023, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-5671
Economics and Statistics AdministrationDepartment of CommercePamela Moulder, FOIA Officer, Office of the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs, Room 4341, Washington, DC 20230202-482-5997202-482-2889
Economics and Statistics AdministrationDepartment of CommercePamela MoulderPamela Moulder, FOIA Officer, Office of the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs, Room 4341, Washington, DC 20230202-482-5997202-482-2889
Immediate Office of the SecretaryDepartment of CommerceBobbie Parsons, FOIA Officer, Immediate Office of the Secretary, Office of Privacy and Open Government, Room 61013, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-3257
Immediate Office of the SecretaryDepartment of CommerceBobbie ParsonsBobbie Parsons, FOIA Officer, Immediate Office of the Secretary, Office of Privacy and Open Government, Room 61013, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-3257
International Trade AdministrationDepartment of CommerceVictor Powers, ITA FOIA Officer, Room 40003, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-7937202-482-1584
International Trade AdministrationDepartment of CommerceVictor PowersVictor Powers, ITA FOIA Officer, Room 40003, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-1584
International Trade AdministrationDepartment of CommerceVictor PowersVictor Powers, ITA FOIA Officer, Room 40003, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-1584
Minority Business Development AgencyDepartment of CommerceJosephine Arnold, FOIA Officer, Room 5093, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-2332202-482-2419
Minority Business Development AgencyDepartment of CommerceJosephine ArnoldJosephine Arnold, FOIA Officer, Room 5093, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-2332202-482-2419
Minority Business Development AgencyDepartment of CommerceJosephine ArnoldJosephine Arnold, FOIA Officer, Room 5093, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-2332202-482-2419
National Institute of Standards and TechnologyDepartment of CommerceCatherine S. Fletcher, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop 1710, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-1710301-975-4074301-975-5301
National Institute of Standards and TechnologyDepartment of CommerceCatherine S. FletcherCatherine S. Fletcher, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop 1710, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-1710301-975-4074301-975-5301
National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationDepartment of CommerceMark Graff, FOIA Officer, Room 9719 – NOAA FOIA Office (SOU 10000), 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910301-628-5658301-713-1169
National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationDepartment of CommerceEd KearnsNOAA Chief Data Officered.kearns@noaa.govMark Graff, FOIA Officer, Room 9719 – NOAA FOIA Office (SOU 10000), 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910828-350-2410301-713-1169
National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationDepartment of CommerceMark GraffMark Graff, FOIA Officer, Room 9719 – NOAA FOIA Office (SOU 10000), 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910301-628-5658301-713-1169
National Technical Information ServiceDepartment of CommerceWayne Strickland, FOIA Officer, Office of Administrative Management, 5301 Shawnee Road, Alexandria, VA 22312703-605-6543703-605-6764
National Technical Information ServiceDepartment of CommerceWayne StricklandWayne Strickland, FOIA Officer, Office of Administrative Management, 5301 Shawnee Road, Alexandria, VA 22312703-605-6764
National Technical Information ServiceDepartment of CommerceWayne StricklandWayne Strickland, FOIA Officer, Office of Administrative Management, 5301 Shawnee Road, Alexandria, VA 22312703-605-6543703-605-6764
National Telecommunications and Information AdministrationDepartment of CommerceStacy Cheney, FOIA Contact, Office of the Chief Counsel, Room 4713, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-1816202-501-8013
National Telecommunications and Information AdministrationDepartment of CommerceKathy SmithStacy Cheney, FOIA Contact, Office of the Chief Counsel, Room 4713, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-1816202-501-8013
National Telecommunications and Information AdministrationDepartment of CommerceStacy CheneyStacy Cheney, FOIA Contact, Office of the Chief Counsel, Room 4713, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-501-8013
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of CommerceJennifer Piel, FOIA Officer, Room 7896, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-482-5992202-501-7335
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of CommerceJennifer Piel, FOIA Officer, Room 7896, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-501-7335
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of CommerceJennifer PielJennifer Piel, FOIA Officer, Room 7896, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-501-7335
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of CommerceJennifer PoelJennifer Piel, FOIA Officer, Room 7896, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20230202-501-7335
Select Department of Commerce component for meDepartment of Commerce14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Room 52010, Washington, DC 20230(202) 482-3842
U.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeDepartment of CommerceLouis Boston Jr., FOIA Contact, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450571-272-3000571-501-7335
U.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeDepartment of CommerceLouis Boston Jr.Louis Boston Jr., FOIA Contact, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450571-501-7335
U.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeDepartment of CommerceLouis Boston Jr.Louis Boston Jr., FOIA Contact, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450571-501-7335
Armed Services Board of Contract AppealsDepartment of DefenseSkyline 6, Room 703, 5109 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3208703-681-8503703-681-8535
Armed Services Board of Contract AppealsDepartment of DefenseCatherine A. StantonGeneral CounselSkyline 6, Room 703, 5109 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3208703-681-8501703-681-8535
Armed Services Board of Contract AppealsDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milSkyline 6, Room 703, 5109 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3208571-372-0462703-681-8535
Defense Commissary AgencyDepartment of DefenseFreedom of Information Officer, 1300 E Avenue, Fort Lee, VA 23801-1800804-734-8116804-734-8116
Defense Commissary AgencyDepartment of DefenseRalph TremaglioFreedom of Information Officer, 1300 E Avenue, Fort Lee, VA 23801-1800804-734-8116804-734-8116
Defense Contract Audit AgencyDepartment of DefenseFOIA Service Center, Suite 2135, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6219703-767-1022(703) 767-3266
Defense Contract Audit AgencyDepartment of DefenseDavid C. HoffmanFOIA LiaisonDavid.Hoffman@dcaa.milFOIA Service Center, Suite 2135, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6219571-448-3153(703) 767-3266
Defense Contract Management AgencyDepartment of Defensedcma.lee.hq.mbx.dcma-foia@mail.milDCMA HQ-DSP, 3901 A Avenue, Fort Lee, VA 23801804-734-1488804-734-0109
Defense Contract Management AgencyDepartment of DefenseDave Wrayfoiapublicliaison@dcma.milDCMA HQ-DSP, 3901 A Avenue, Fort Lee, VA 23801(804) 734-0202804-734-0109
Defense Contract Management AgencyDepartment of DefenseKim TurnerFOIA/PA/CL Officerdcma.foia@dcma.milDCMA HQ-DSP, 3901 A Avenue, Fort Lee, VA 23801804-734-0109
Defense Counterintelligence and Security AgencyDepartment of DefenseOffice of FOIA and Privacy, 27130 Telegraph Road, Quantico, VA 22314571-305-6740571-305-6931
Defense Counterintelligence and Security AgencyDepartment of DefenseJay FraudeOffice of FOIA and Privacy, 27130 Telegraph Road, Quantico, VA 22314571-305-6931
Defense Counterintelligence and Security AgencyDepartment of DefenseStephanie Courtneydss.quantico.dss-hq.mbx.foia@mail.milOffice of FOIA and Privacy, 27130 Telegraph Road, Quantico, VA 22314(571) 305-6740571-305-6931
Defense Finance and Accounting ServiceDepartment of DefenseIndianapolis FOIA/PA Program Manager, 8899 East 56th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46249-0150317-212-4591317-212-8802
Defense Finance and Accounting ServiceDepartment of DefenseGregory Outlawdfas.foia@mail.milIndianapolis FOIA/PA Program Manager, 8899 East 56th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46249-0150317-212-4591317-212-8802
Defense Finance and Accounting ServiceDepartment of DefenseGregory OutlawIndianapolis FOIA/PA Program Manager, 8899 East 56th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46249-0150317-212-4591317-212-8802
Defense Health AgencyDepartment of DefenseDHA FOIA Requester Service Center, 7700 Arlington Blvd, Suite 5101, Falls Church, VA 22042-5101703-275-6363703-681-5138
Defense Health AgencyDepartment of DefenseRahwa KeletaDHA FOIA Requester Service Center, 7700 Arlington Blvd, Suite 5101, Falls Church, VA 22042-5101703 – 275 – 6052703-681-5138
Defense Information Systems AgencyDepartment of DefenseATTN: Headquarters FOIA Requester Service Center, P.O. Box 549, Ft. Meade, MD 20755-0549301-225-6104301-225-0510
Defense Information Systems AgencyDepartment of DefenseVicki Allumsdisa.meade.gc.mbx.disa-gen-counsel@mail.milATTN: Headquarters FOIA Requester Service Center, P.O. Box 549, Ft. Meade, MD 20755-0549(301) 225-4116301-225-0510
Defense Intelligence AgencyDepartment of DefenseATTN: FAC2A1 (FOIA), 7400 Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-7400301-394-5587301-394-5356
Defense Intelligence AgencyDepartment of DefenseCharles MarineauATTN: FAC2A1 (FOIA), 7400 Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-7400301-394-5587301-394-5356
Defense Logistics AgencyDepartment of DefenseInformation Governance & Compliance/Attn: FOIA/Privacy, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 1326, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6221571-767-6183703-767-6091
Defense Logistics AgencyDepartment of DefenseLewis OleinickInformation Governance & Compliance/Attn: FOIA/Privacy, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 1326, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6221571-767-6194703-767-6091
Defense Technical Information CenterDepartment of DefenseDTIC-R ATTN: FOIA Requester Service Center, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6218703-767-9204703-767-9201
Defense Technical Information CenterDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milDTIC-R ATTN: FOIA Requester Service Center, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6218571-372-0462703-767-9201
Defense Threat Reduction AgencyDepartment of DefenseATTN: GC-FOIA/PA, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201703-767-1792703-767-3623
Defense Threat Reduction AgencyDepartment of DefensePamela Andrewsdtrafoiaprivacy@mail.milATTN: GC-FOIA/PA, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201(703) 767-1792703-767-3623
Defense Threat Reduction AgencyDepartment of DefensePamela AndrewsATTN: GC-FOIA/PA, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201703-767-1792703-767-3623
Department of Defense Education ActivityDepartment of DefenseFOIA Requester Service Center, 4800 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22350-1400571-372-1892571-372-5829
Department of Defense Education ActivityDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milFOIA Requester Service Center, 4800 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22350-1400571-372-0462571-372-5829
Department of Defense Education ActivityDepartment of DefenseRachel Swannfoia@hq.dodea.eduFOIA Requester Service Center, 4800 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22350-1400571-372-1890571-372-5829
Department of the Air ForceDepartment of DefenseSAF/AAII (FOIA), 1000 Air Force Pentagon, Washington, DC 20330-1000703-693-2735
Department of the Air ForceDepartment of DefenseAnh TrinhSAF/AAII (FOIA), 1000 Air Force Pentagon, Washington, DC 20330-1000703-614-8500
Department of the ArmyDepartment of DefenseU.S. Army Freedom of Information Act Office Records Management and Declassification Agency, 9301 Chapek Rd. Bldg 1458, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5605571-515-0306
Department of the ArmyDepartment of DefenseAlecia Bollingusarmy.belvoir.hqda-oaa-ahs.mbx.rmda-foia-public-liaison@mail.milU.S. Army Freedom of Information Act Office Records Management and Declassification Agency, 9301 Chapek Rd. Bldg 1458, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5605571-515-0306
Department of the NavyDepartment of DefenseDONFOIA-PA@navy.milChief of Naval Operations, DNS-36, 2000 Navy Pentagon, Washington, DC 20350-2000202-685-0412202-685-6580
Department of the NavyDepartment of DefenseChristopher Julkachristopher.a.julka@navy.milChief of Naval Operations, DNS-36, 2000 Navy Pentagon, Washington, DC 20350-2000703-697-0031202-685-6580
Joint Personnel Recovery AgencyDepartment of Defensejs.belvoir.jpra.mbx.foia-pa@mail.milFOIA Requester Service Center, 10244 Burbeck Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5805703-704-0637(703) 704-3293
Joint Personnel Recovery AgencyDepartment of DefenseChristine Jonesjs.belvoir.jpra.mbx.foia-pa@mail.milFOIA Requester Service Center, 10244 Burbeck Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5805703-704-0637(703) 704-3293
Joint Personnel Recovery AgencyDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milFOIA Requester Service Center, 10244 Burbeck Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5805571-372-0462(703) 704-3293
National Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyDepartment of Defense7500 GEOINT Drive, Mail Stop N22-SISM, Springfield, VA 22150571-557-4141571-558-3117
National Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyDepartment of DefenseRobert Milford7500 GEOINT Drive, Mail Stop N22-SISM, Springfield, VA 22150571-557-7729571-558-3117
National Guard BureauDepartment of DefenseOffice of Information and Privacy (NGB/JA-OIP), 111 South George Mason Drive, AH2, Arlington, VA 22204-1373844-573-2939703-607-3684
National Guard BureauDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milOffice of Information and Privacy (NGB/JA-OIP), 111 South George Mason Drive, AH2, Arlington, VA 22204-1373571-372-0462703-607-3684
National Guard BureauDepartment of DefenseJennifer NikolaisenOffice of Information and Privacy (NGB/JA-OIP), 111 South George Mason Drive, AH2, Arlington, VA 22204-1373(844) 573-2939703-607-3684
National Reconnaissance OfficeDepartment of DefenseATTN: COMM/Information Review and Release Group, 14675 Lee Road, Chantilly, VA 20151-1715703-227-9326703-227-9198
National Reconnaissance OfficeDepartment of DefenseCynthia AllmanATTN: COMM/Information Review and Release Group, 14675 Lee Road, Chantilly, VA 20151-1715703-227-9326703-227-9198
National Security AgencyDepartment of DefenseJohn Chapmanfoialo@nsa.govFOIA Requester Service Center/P132, Suite 6932, 9800 Savage Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6248301-688-6527443-479-3612
National Security AgencyDepartment of DefenseJohn ChapmanFOIA Requester Service Center/P132, Suite 6932, 9800 Savage Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6248301-688-6527443-479-3612
National Security AgencyDepartment of DefenseMichael Shieldsfoiarsc@nsa.govFOIA Requester Service Center/P132, Suite 6932, 9800 Savage Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6248301-688-6527443-479-3612
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of DefenseDoDIG FOIA , 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 10B24, Alexandria, VA 22350-1500866-993-7005571-372-7498
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of DefenseDoDIG FOIA , 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 10B24, Alexandria, VA 22350-1500703-604-9775571-372-7498
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Defensefoiarequests@dodig.milDoDIG FOIA , 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 10B24, Alexandria, VA 22350-1500(866) 993-7005, (703) 604-9785571-372-7498
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of DefenseMark DorganDoDIG FOIA , 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 10B24, Alexandria, VA 22350-1500703-604-9785571-372-7498
Office of the Secretary and Joint StaffDepartment of DefenseOSD/JS FOIA Requester Service Center, Office of Freedom of Information, 1155 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155866-574-4970571-372-0500
Office of the Secretary and Joint StaffDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milOSD/JS FOIA Requester Service Center, Office of Freedom of Information, 1155 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155571-372-0462571-372-0500
Office of the Secretary and Joint StaffDepartment of DefenseStephanie CarrChiefwhs.mc-alex.esd.mbx.osd-js-foia-requester-service-center@mail.milOSD/JS FOIA Requester Service Center, Office of Freedom of Information, 1155 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-11551-866-574-4970571-372-0500
U.S. Africa CommandDepartment of DefenseHQ U.S. Africa Command, FOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 29951, APO, AE 09751+490 711-729-4287+490 711-729-4732
U.S. Africa CommandDepartment of DefenseAngelica Simmonsafricom.stuttgart.accc.list.foia-mba@mail.milHQ U.S. Africa Command, FOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 29951, APO, AE 09751+490 711-729-4732
U.S. Africa CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milHQ U.S. Africa Command, FOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 29951, APO, AE 09751571-372-0462+490 711-729-4732
U.S. Africa CommandDepartment of DefenseMegan FarrellHQ U.S. Africa Command, FOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 29951, APO, AE 0975149 0 711 729 2925+490 711-729-4732
U.S. Central CommandDepartment of DefenseCCJ6-RDF (FOIA/PA), 7115 South Boundary Boulevard, MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5101813-529-6285(813) 529-6076
U.S. Central CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milCCJ6-RDF (FOIA/PA), 7115 South Boundary Boulevard, MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5101571-372-0462(813) 529-6076
U.S. Central CommandDepartment of DefenseEvlyn Hearnecentcom.macdill.centcom-hq.mbx.freedom-of-information-act@mail.milCCJ6-RDF (FOIA/PA), 7115 South Boundary Boulevard, MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5101(813) 529-6285(813) 529-6076
U.S. Cyber CommandDepartment of Defense9800 Savage Road, , Fort Meade, MD 20755
U.S. Cyber CommandDepartment of DefenseJim Hoganosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.mil9800 Savage Road, , Fort Meade, MD 20755571-372-0462
U.S. Cyber CommandDepartment of DefenseJohn WileyFOIA OfficerCYBERCOM_FOIA@cybercom.mil9800 Savage Road, , Fort Meade, MD 20755(301) 688-3585
U.S. European CommandDepartment of DefenseFOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 30400, APO, AE 09131+49011 711-680-7161011.49.711.680.5197
U.S. European CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milFOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 30400, APO, AE 09131571-372-0462011.49.711.680.5197
U.S. European CommandDepartment of DefenseMartin Benavidezeucom.stuttgart.ecj1.list.foia-privact-request-mb-access@mail.milFOIA Requester Service Center, Unit 30400, APO, AE 09131011.49.711.7080.1328011.49.711.680.5197
U.S. Indo-Pacific CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milUSINDOPACOM, ATTN: J06 FOIA, BOX 64022, Camp Smith, HI 96861-4022571-372-0462808-447-6685
U.S. Indo-Pacific CommandDepartment of DefenseFOIA Requester Service Centerpacom.foia.fct@pacom.milUSINDOPACOM, ATTN: J06 FOIA, BOX 64022, Camp Smith, HI 96861-4022808-477-0995808-447-6685
U.S. Indo-Pacific CommandDepartment of DefenseJulio PerezFOIA ChiefUSINDOPACOM, ATTN: J06 FOIA, BOX 64022, Camp Smith, HI 96861-4022(808) 477-0995808-447-6685
U.S. Marine CorpsDepartment of DefenseFOIA/PA, Headquaters US Marine Corps (ARSF), FOIA/PA Section (ARSF), 3000 Marine Corps Pentagon, Washington, DC 20350-3000703-614-4008703-614-6287
U.S. Marine CorpsDepartment of DefenseChristopher Julkachristopher.a.julka@navy.milFOIA/PA, Headquaters US Marine Corps (ARSF), FOIA/PA Section (ARSF), 3000 Marine Corps Pentagon, Washington, DC 20350-3000703-697-0031703-614-6287
U.S. Northern CommandDepartment of DefenseUSNORTHCOM FOIA Requester Service Center, 250 Vandenberg Street Suite B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914-3804719-556-2117719-554-2619
U.S. Northern CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milUSNORTHCOM FOIA Requester Service Center, 250 Vandenberg Street Suite B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914-3804571-372-0462719-554-2619
U.S. Northern CommandDepartment of DefenseDonna CrumpUSNORTHCOM FOIA Requester Service Center, 250 Vandenberg Street Suite B016, Peterson AFB, CO 80914-3804719-556-2117719-554-2619
U.S. Southern CommandDepartment of DefenseAttn: SCSJA-FOIA, 9301 NW 33rd St., Doral, FL 33172305-437-1108305-437-1320
U.S. Southern CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milAttn: SCSJA-FOIA, 9301 NW 33rd St., Doral, FL 33172571-372-0462305-437-1320
U.S. Special Operations CommandDepartment of DefenseHQ USSOCOM – SOCS-SJS-I/FOIA Requester Service Center, 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard, MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5323813-826-3212813-826-5482
U.S. Special Operations CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milHQ USSOCOM – SOCS-SJS-I/FOIA Requester Service Center, 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard, MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5323571-372-0462813-826-5482
U.S. Special Operations CommandDepartment of DefenseKeith F. KomosinskiFOIA@socom.milHQ USSOCOM – SOCS-SJS-I/FOIA Requester Service Center, 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard, MacDill AFB, FL 33621-5323(813) 826-3212813-826-5482
U.S. Strategic CommandDepartment of DefenseUSSTRATCOM/J006 (FOIA), 901 SAC BLVD STE 2E20A, Offutt AFB, NE 68113402-294-6321402-294-7535
U.S. Strategic CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milUSSTRATCOM/J006 (FOIA), 901 SAC BLVD STE 2E20A, Offutt AFB, NE 68113571-372-0462402-294-7535
U.S. Strategic CommandDepartment of DefenseKendall Cooperstratcom.offutt.j006.mbx.foia-pa@mail.milUSSTRATCOM/J006 (FOIA), 901 SAC BLVD STE 2E20A, Offutt AFB, NE 68113(402) 294-6321402-294-7535
U.S. Transportation CommandDepartment of DefenseUSTRANSCOM/TCJA-FO, 508 Scott Drive, Scott AFB, IL 62225-5357618-220-4100(618) 256-8356
U.S. Transportation CommandDepartment of DefenseDarrell WilliamsInterim FOIA Public Liaisonosd.mc-alex.ocmo.mbx.foia-liaison@mail.milUSTRANSCOM/TCJA-FO, 508 Scott Drive, Scott AFB, IL 62225-5357571-372-0462(618) 256-8356
U.S. Transportation CommandDepartment of DefenseTammy Hickeytranscom.scott.tcja.mbx.foia@mail.milUSTRANSCOM/TCJA-FO, 508 Scott Drive, Scott AFB, IL 62225-5357618-220-4100(618) 256-8356
Department of EducationDepartment of EducationCarla McKenzieFOIA Public LiaisonCarla.McKenzie@ed.govFOIA Service Center, Office of Management, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4536215-656-6027202-401-0920
Department of EducationDepartment of EducationFOIA HotlineEDFOIAManager@ed.govFOIA Service Center, Office of Management, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4536202-401-8365202-401-0920
Department of EducationDepartment of EducationRobert WehausenRobert.Wehausen@ed.govFOIA Service Center, Office of Management, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4536202-401-8365, 202-205-0733202-401-0920
Department of EducationDepartment of EducationTracey St. PierreChief FOIA OfficerTracey.StPierre@ed.govFOIA Service Center, Office of Management, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4536202-401-3607202-401-0920
Bonneville Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyCandice Palen, FOIA Officer, CGI-7, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, OR 97208-3621503-230-7305503-230-4019
Bonneville Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyCandice PalenFOIA OfficerCandice Palen, FOIA Officer, CGI-7, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, OR 97208-3621503-230-3602503-230-4019
Bonneville Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyJason TaylorCandice Palen, FOIA Officer, CGI-7, P.O. Box 3621, Portland, OR 97208-3621503-230-3537503-230-4019
Carlsbad Field Office  Waste Isolation Pilot ProgramDepartment of EnergyMyles Hall, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 3090, 4021 National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88221575-234-7442575-234-7694
Carlsbad Field Office  Waste Isolation Pilot ProgramDepartment of EnergyMyles HallMyles Hall, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 3090, 4021 National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88221575-234-7010575-234-7694
Carlsbad Field Office  Waste Isolation Pilot ProgramDepartment of EnergyMyles HallMyles Hall, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 3090, 4021 National Parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88221575-234-7010575-234-7694
Chicago OfficeDepartment of EnergyMiriam Bartos, FOIA Officer, 9800 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439630-252-2041630-252-2779
Chicago OfficeDepartment of EnergyMiriam BartosMiriam Bartos, FOIA Officer, 9800 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439630-252-2041630-252-2779
Chicago OfficeDepartment of EnergyPeter SiebachMiriam Bartos, FOIA Officer, 9800 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439630-252-2007630-252-2779
Environmental Management Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC)Department of EnergyDavid Ford, FOIA Officer, Suite 500, 250 East 5th Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202513-246-0489513-246-0524
Environmental Management Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC)Department of EnergyDavid FordDavid Ford, FOIA Officer, Suite 500, 250 East 5th Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202513-246-0579513-246-0524
Environmental Management Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC)Department of EnergyDavid FordDavid Ford, FOIA Officer, Suite 500, 250 East 5th Street, Cincinnati, OH 45202513-246-0579513-246-0524
Golden Field OfficeDepartment of EnergySean Johnson, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop RSF DOE, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401720-356-1427720-356-1780
Golden Field OfficeDepartment of EnergyDerek PassarelliSean Johnson, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop RSF DOE, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401240-562-1742720-356-1780
Golden Field OfficeDepartment of EnergySean JohnsonFOIA OfficerSean Johnson, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop RSF DOE, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401240-562-1373720-356-1780
HeadquartersDepartment of EnergyAlexander Morris, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop MA-46, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20585202-586-5955202-586-0575
HeadquartersDepartment of EnergyAlexander MorrisAlexander Morris, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop MA-46, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20585202-586-3159202-586-0575
HeadquartersDepartment of EnergyAlexander MorrisAlexander Morris, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop MA-46, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20585202-586-0575
Idaho Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyAmy Smith, FOIA Officer, MS 1203, 1955 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83401208-526-5190
Idaho Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyAmy SmithAmy Smith, FOIA Officer, MS 1203, 1955 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83401208-526-4223
Idaho Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyAmy SmithAmy Smith, FOIA Officer, MS 1203, 1955 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83401208-526-4223
National Energy Technology LaboratoryDepartment of EnergyAnn Guy, FOIA Officer, M/S 922/M210, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940412-386-6167412-386-5949
National Energy Technology LaboratoryDepartment of EnergyAnn GuyAnn Guy, FOIA Officer, M/S 922/M210, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940412-386-6167412-386-5949
National Energy Technology LaboratoryDepartment of EnergyAnn GuyAnn Guy, FOIA Officer, M/S 922/M210, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940412-386-6167412-386-5949
National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Naval ReactorsDepartment of EnergyClifford Nunn, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 109, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0109202-781-6172412-476-7675
National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Naval ReactorsDepartment of EnergyClifford NunnClifford Nunn, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 109, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0109412-476-7202412-476-7675
National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Naval ReactorsDepartment of EnergyJeffrey AveryClifford Nunn, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 109, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0109202-781-6236412-476-7675
National Nuclear Security Administration Service CenterDepartment of EnergyJane SummersonJane Summerson, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 5400, Albuquerque, NM 87185-5400505-845-6265505-284-7512
National Nuclear Security Administration Service CenterDepartment of EnergyJane SummersonJane Summerson, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 5400, Albuquerque, NM 87185-5400866-747-5994505-284-7512
National Nuclear Security Administration Service CenterDepartment of EnergyJane SummersonJane Summerson, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 5400, Albuquerque, NM 87185-5400866-747-5994505-284-7512
Oak Ridge OfficeDepartment of EnergyLinda Chapman, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831865-576-1216865-576-1556
Oak Ridge OfficeDepartment of EnergyDiAnn FieldsLinda Chapman, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831865-576-3612865-576-1556
Oak Ridge OfficeDepartment of EnergyLinda ChapmanLinda Chapman, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831865-576-2129865-576-1556
Office of Scientific and Technical InformationDepartment of EnergyErin Anderson, FOIA Officer, 1 Science.gov Way, Oak Ridge, TN 37830865-576-1261865-576-3589
Office of Scientific and Technical InformationDepartment of EnergyErin AndersonErin Anderson, FOIA Officer, 1 Science.gov Way, Oak Ridge, TN 37830865-241-5686865-576-3589
Office of Scientific and Technical InformationDepartment of EnergyJeffrey GivenErin Anderson, FOIA Officer, 1 Science.gov Way, Oak Ridge, TN 37830865-576-1146865-576-3589
Richland Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyDorothy Riehle, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop A7-75, P.O. Box 550, Richland, WA 99352509-376-6288509-376-9704
Richland Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyDorothy RiehleDorothy Riehle, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop A7-75, P.O. Box 550, Richland, WA 99352509-376-6288509-376-9704
Richland Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyRichard BuelDorothy Riehle, FOIA Officer, Mail Stop A7-75, P.O. Box 550, Richland, WA 99352509-376-3375509-376-9704
Savannah River Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergySavannah River Operations Office, P.O. Box A, Aiken, SC 29801803-952-8134803-952-8271
Savannah River Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyJennifer FarmerSavannah River Operations Office, P.O. Box A, Aiken, SC 29801803-952-7813803-952-8271
Savannah River Operations OfficeDepartment of EnergyLucy KnowlesSavannah River Operations Office, P.O. Box A, Aiken, SC 29801803-952-7618803-952-8271
Southeastern Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyJoel Seymour, FOIA Officer, 1166 Athens Tech Road, Elberton, GA 30635-6711706-213-3810706-213-3884
Southeastern Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyJoel SeymourJoel Seymour, FOIA Officer, 1166 Athens Tech Road, Elberton, GA 30635-6711706-213-3810706-213-3884
Southeastern Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyJoel SeymourJoel Seymour, FOIA Officer, 1166 Athens Tech Road, Elberton, GA 30635-6711706-213-3810706-213-3884
Southwestern Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyS7100, One West Third, Tulsa, OK 74103918-595-6605918-595-6785
Southwestern Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyJohn D. BremerS7100, One West Third, Tulsa, OK 74103720-962-7010918-595-6785
Southwestern Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyRosa Gonzalez-SmithFOIA OfficerS7100, One West Third, Tulsa, OK 74103918-595-6605918-595-6785
Strategic Petroleum Reserve ProjectDepartment of EnergyKristin Frischhertz, FOIA Officer, MS FE-445, 900 Commerce Road East, New Orleans, LA 70123504-734-4297504-818-5316
Strategic Petroleum Reserve ProjectDepartment of EnergyKristin FrischhertzKristin Frischhertz, FOIA Officer, MS FE-445, 900 Commerce Road East, New Orleans, LA 70123504-734-4297504-818-5316
Strategic Petroleum Reserve ProjectDepartment of EnergyKristin FrischhertzKristin Frischhertz, FOIA Officer, MS FE-445, 900 Commerce Road East, New Orleans, LA 70123504-734-4297504-818-5316
Western Area Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyPatricia S. Land, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 281213, 12155 West Alameda Parkway, Lakewood, CO 80228-8213720-962-7014720-962-7009
Western Area Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyJohn D. BremerPatricia S. Land, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 281213, 12155 West Alameda Parkway, Lakewood, CO 80228-8213720-962-7010720-962-7009
Western Area Power AdministrationDepartment of EnergyPatricia S. LandPatricia S. Land, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 281213, 12155 West Alameda Parkway, Lakewood, CO 80228-8213720-962-7010720-962-7009
Administration for Children and FamiliesDepartment of Health and Human ServicesKimberly N. Epstein, FOIA Officer, Mary E. Switzer Building, Room 4004, 330 C Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20201888-747-1861202-401-4829
Administration for Children and FamiliesDepartment of Health and Human ServicesKenneth WolfeKimberly N. Epstein, FOIA Officer, Mary E. Switzer Building, Room 4004, 330 C Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20201202-401-9215202-401-4829
Administration for Children and FamiliesDepartment of Health and Human ServicesKimberly N. EpsteinKimberly N. Epstein, FOIA Officer, Mary E. Switzer Building, Room 4004, 330 C Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20201888-747-1861202-401-4829
Administration for Community LivingDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRick NichollsACLfoia@acl.hhs.govFOIA Requester Service Center, Administration for Community Living, , Washington, DC 20201202-795-7415202-205-0399
Administration for Community LivingDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRick NichollsACLfoia@acl.hhs.govFOIA Requester Service Center, Administration for Community Living, , Washington, DC 20201202-795-7415202-205-0399
Administration for Community LivingDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRick NichollsFOIA OfficerACLfoia@acl.hhs.govFOIA Requester Service Center, Administration for Community Living, , Washington, DC 20201202-795-7415202-205-0399
Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael S. Marquis, FOIA Officer, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-260-6933202-260-6108
Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael BellMichael S. Marquis, FOIA Officer, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-260-6108
Agency for Healthcare Research and QualityDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael MarquisMichael S. Marquis, FOIA Officer, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-260-6108
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRoger Andoh, FOIA Officer, Building 16, D-54, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333770-488-6399404-235-1852
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRoger AndohRoger Andoh, FOIA Officer, Building 16, D-54, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333770-488-6277404-235-1852
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRoger AndohRoger Andoh, FOIA Officer, Building 16, D-54, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333770-488-6277404-235-1852
Center for Medicare and Medicaid ServicesDepartment of Health and Human ServicesHugh Gilmore, FOIA Officer, North Building, Room N2-20-06, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244410-786-5353410-786-0474
Center for Medicare and Medicaid ServicesDepartment of Health and Human ServicesHugh GilmoreFOIA Officerhugh.gilmore@cms.hhs.govHugh Gilmore, FOIA Officer, North Building, Room N2-20-06, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244410-786-5353410-786-0474
Center for Medicare and Medicaid ServicesDepartment of Health and Human ServicesJoseph TriplineHugh Gilmore, FOIA Officer, North Building, Room N2-20-06, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244410-786-5353410-786-0474
Centers for Disease Control and PreventionDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRoger Andoh, FOIA Officer, MS-D54, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333770-488-6399404-235-1852
Centers for Disease Control and PreventionDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRoger AndohRoger Andoh, FOIA Officer, MS-D54, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333770-488-6277404-235-1852
Centers for Disease Control and PreventionDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRoger AndohRoger Andoh, FOIA Officer, MS-D54, 1600 Clifton Road, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333770-488-6277404-235-1852
Food and Drug AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesFOIA Public Liaison – Director, Office of the Executive SecretariatFDA Division of Freedom of Information, Office of the Executive Secretariat, OC , 5630 Fishers Lane, Room 1035, Rockville, MD 20857301-796-3900301-827-9267
Food and Drug AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesFDA Division of Freedom of Information, Office of the Executive Secretariat, OC , 5630 Fishers Lane, Room 1035, Rockville, MD 20857301-796-3900301-827-9267
Food and Drug AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesSarah KotlerFOIA OfficerFDA Division of Freedom of Information, Office of the Executive Secretariat, OC , 5630 Fishers Lane, Room 1035, Rockville, MD 20857301-796-3900301-827-9267
Health Resources and Services AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesHRSA FOIA Office, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 13-N82, , Rockville, MD 20857301-443-2865301-480-5285
Health Resources and Services AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesDenise F. WallaceHRSA FOIA Public Liaisonfoia@hrsa.govHRSA FOIA Office, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 13-N82, , Rockville, MD 20857301-443-2865301-480-5285
Health Resources and Services AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesTom FlavinHRSA FOIA Office, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 13-N82, , Rockville, MD 20857301-443-2865301-480-5285
Indian Health ServiceDepartment of Health and Human ServicesIndian Health Service FOIA Office, Division of Regulatory Affairs, , 5600 Fishers Lane, Mailstop 09E70, Rockville, MD 20857301-443-1116
Indian Health ServiceDepartment of Health and Human ServicesCarl G. MitchellFOIA OfficerIHSFOIAMailbox@ihs.govIndian Health Service FOIA Office, Division of Regulatory Affairs, , 5600 Fishers Lane, Mailstop 09E70, Rockville, MD 20857301-443-1116
Indian Health ServiceDepartment of Health and Human ServicesJanet IngersollFOIA Public LiaisonIHSFOIAMailbox@ihs.govIndian Health Service FOIA Office, Division of Regulatory Affairs, , 5600 Fishers Lane, Mailstop 09E70, Rockville, MD 20857301-443-6177
National Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesNIH FOIA Office, Building 31, Room 5B35, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2107, Bethesda, MD 20892-2107301-496-5633301-402-4541
National Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesGorka Garcia-MaleneFOIA Officer, National Institutes of Healthnihfoia@mail.nih.govNIH FOIA Office, Building 31, Room 5B35, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2107, Bethesda, MD 20892-2107301-496-5633301-402-4541
National Institutes of HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesStephanie ClipperFOIA Public Liaisonnihfoia@mail.nih.govNIH FOIA Office, Building 31, Room 5B35, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2107, Bethesda, MD 20892-2107301-496-5633301-402-4541
Office of the Assistant Secretary for HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael BellHubert H. Humphrey Building, Room 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-8320
Office of the Assistant Secretary for HealthDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael MarquisHubert H. Humphrey Building, Room 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-690-8320
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRobin Brooks, FOIA Officer, Wilbur J. Cohen Building, Room 1062, 330 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-619-2541202-708-9824
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRobin BrooksRobin Brooks, FOIA Officer, Wilbur J. Cohen Building, Room 1062, 330 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-619-2541202-708-9824
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of Health and Human ServicesRobin BrooksRobin Brooks, FOIA Officer, Wilbur J. Cohen Building, Room 1062, 330 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-619-2541202-708-9824
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of Health and Human ServicesFOIA Officer/Director, Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Division, Hubert H. Humphrey Bldg, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-690-8320
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael BellFOIA Officer/Director, Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Division, Hubert H. Humphrey Bldg, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-690-8320
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael MarquisFOIA Officer/Director, Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Division, Hubert H. Humphrey Bldg, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-690-8320
Public Health ServiceDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael S. Marquis, FOIA Officer, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-260-6933202-260-6108
Public Health ServiceDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael BellMichael S. Marquis, FOIA Officer, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-260-6108
Public Health ServiceDepartment of Health and Human ServicesMichael MarquisMichael S. Marquis, FOIA Officer, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Suite 729H, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20201202-690-7453202-260-6108
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesFOIA@samhsa.govSiobhan Dugan, FOIA Officer, Room 18E73D, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857240-276-2327240-276-2010
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesSiobhan DuganFOIA@samhsa.govSiobhan Dugan, FOIA Officer, Room 18E73D, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857240-276-2327240-276-2010
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services AdministrationDepartment of Health and Human ServicesSiobhan DuganFOIA@samhsa.govSiobhan Dugan, FOIA Officer, Room 18E73D, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857240-276-2327240-276-2010
Cybersecurity and Information Security AgencyDepartment of Homeland SecurityAngela WashingtonActing FOIA OfficerNPPD.FOIA@dhs.govFOIA Officer, Directorate for National Protection and Programs, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528703-235-2211703-235-2052
Cybersecurity and Information Security AgencyDepartment of Homeland SecurityAngela WashingtonFOIA Officer, Directorate for National Protection and Programs, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528703-235-2211703-235-2052
Federal Emergency Management AgencyDepartment of Homeland SecurityPearlene RobinsonActing FOIA Officerfema-foia@fema.dhs.govFederal Emergency Management Agency, FOIA Officer,, 500 C Street, SW, Room 840, Washington, DC 20472202-646-3323202-646-3347
Federal Emergency Management AgencyDepartment of Homeland SecurityPearlene RobinsonActing FOIA Officerfema-foia@fema.dhs.govFederal Emergency Management Agency, FOIA Officer,, 500 C Street, SW, Room 840, Washington, DC 20472202-646-3323202-646-3347
Federal Emergency Management AgencyDepartment of Homeland SecurityPearlene Robinson, ActingFOIA Officerfema-foia@fema.dhs.govFederal Emergency Management Agency, FOIA Officer,, 500 C Street, SW, Room 840, Washington, DC 20472202-646-3323202-646-3347
Federal Law Enforcement Training CenterDepartment of Homeland SecurityFederal Law Enforcement Training Center, FOIA Officer, 1131 Chapel Crossing Road, Building #681, Suite B187, Glynco, GA 31524912-267-3103912-267-3113
Federal Law Enforcement Training CenterDepartment of Homeland SecurityAlicia AldridgeFOIA Officerfletc-foia@dhs.govFederal Law Enforcement Training Center, FOIA Officer, 1131 Chapel Crossing Road, Building #681, Suite B187, Glynco, GA 31524912-267-3103912-267-3113
Federal Law Enforcement Training CenterDepartment of Homeland SecurityAlicia AldridgeFOIA Officerfletc-foia@dhs.govFederal Law Enforcement Training Center, FOIA Officer, 1131 Chapel Crossing Road, Building #681, Suite B187, Glynco, GA 31524912-267-3103912-267-3113
Headquarters & Privacy OfficeDepartment of Homeland SecurityAmy BennettActing Public Liaisonfoia@hq.dhs.govThe Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, 245 Murray Lane, SW, Building 401, MS-0655, Washington, DC 20528-0655202-343-1743, 866-431-0486202-343-4011
Headquarters & Privacy OfficeDepartment of Homeland SecurityService Centerfoia@hq.dhs.govThe Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, 245 Murray Lane, SW, Building 401, MS-0655, Washington, DC 20528-0655202-343-1743, 866-431-0486202-343-4011
Headquarters & Privacy OfficeDepartment of Homeland SecurityVacantChief FOIA Officerfoia@hq.dhs.govThe Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security, 245 Murray Lane, SW, Building 401, MS-0655, Washington, DC 20528-0655202-343-1743, 866-431-0486202-343-4011
Office for Civil Rights and Civil LibertiesDepartment of Homeland SecurityBradley White, CRCL FOIA Officer, 245 Murray Lane, SW, , Building 410, Mail Stop #0655, Washington, DC 20528-0655202-343-1743202-343-4011
Office for Civil Rights and Civil LibertiesDepartment of Homeland SecurityBradley WhiteFOIA Officerfoia@hq.dhs.govBradley White, CRCL FOIA Officer, 245 Murray Lane, SW, , Building 410, Mail Stop #0655, Washington, DC 20528-0655202-343-1743202-343-4011
Office for Civil Rights and Civil LibertiesDepartment of Homeland SecurityBradley WhiteFOIA Officerfoia@hq.dhs.govBradley White, CRCL FOIA Officer, 245 Murray Lane, SW, , Building 410, Mail Stop #0655, Washington, DC 20528-0655202-343-1743202-343-4011
Office of Biometric Identity ManagementDepartment of Homeland SecurityAeron McGraw, FOIA Officer, 245 Murray Lane, SW – STOP-0655, Washington, DC 20598-0628202-295-5454202-343-4011
Office of Biometric Identity ManagementDepartment of Homeland SecurityAeron McGrawFOIA Officerfoia-obim@hq.dhs.govAeron McGraw, FOIA Officer, 245 Murray Lane, SW – STOP-0655, Washington, DC 20598-0628866-431-0486, 202-343-1743202-343-4011
Office of Biometric Identity ManagementDepartment of Homeland SecurityAeron McGrawAeron McGraw, FOIA Officer, 245 Murray Lane, SW – STOP-0655, Washington, DC 20598-0628202-343-1743, 866-431-0486202-343-4011
Office of Intelligence & AnalysisDepartment of Homeland SecurityFOIA Officer, Office of Intelligence & Analysis, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, , Washington, DC 20528202-447-3783202-612-1936
Office of Intelligence & AnalysisDepartment of Homeland SecurityBrendan HenryFOIA OfficerI&AFOIA@hq.dhs.govFOIA Officer, Office of Intelligence & Analysis, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, , Washington, DC 20528202-447-3783202-612-1936
Office of Intelligence & AnalysisDepartment of Homeland SecurityBrendan HenryFOIA OfficerI&AFOIA@hq.dhs.govFOIA Officer, Office of Intelligence & Analysis, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, , Washington, DC 20528202-447-3783202-612-1936
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of Homeland SecurityOffice of the Inspector General, FOIA Public Liaison, DHS-OIG Counsel, 245 Murray Lane, SW, Stop 0305, Washington, DC 20528-0305202-254-4001202-245-5217
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of Homeland SecurityAvery RoselleFOIA OfficerFOIA.OIG@oig.dhs.govOffice of the Inspector General, FOIA Public Liaison, DHS-OIG Counsel, 245 Murray Lane, SW, Stop 0305, Washington, DC 20528-0305202-254-4001202-245-5217
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of Homeland SecurityAvery RoselleFOIA OfficerFOIA.OIG@oig.dhs.govOffice of the Inspector General, FOIA Public Liaison, DHS-OIG Counsel, 245 Murray Lane, SW, Stop 0305, Washington, DC 20528-0305202-254-4001202-245-5217
Science & Technology DirectorateDepartment of Homeland SecurityFOIA Officerstfoia@hq.dhs.govScience & Technology Directorate, FOIA Officer, STOP-0655, 245 Murray Ln SW, Washington, DC 20528202-254-5700202-343-4011
Science & Technology DirectorateDepartment of Homeland SecurityErica TalleyFOIA OfficerScience & Technology Directorate, FOIA Officer, STOP-0655, 245 Murray Ln SW, Washington, DC 20528202-343-1743, 866-431-0486202-343-4011
Science & Technology DirectorateDepartment of Homeland SecurityErica TalleyFOIA Officerfoia@hq.dhs.govScience & Technology Directorate, FOIA Officer, STOP-0655, 245 Murray Ln SW, Washington, DC 20528866-431-0486, 202-343-1743202-343-4011
Transportation Security AdministrationDepartment of Homeland SecurityTeri MillerFOIA Officerfoia@tsa.dhs.govFreedom of Information Act Branch, 601 S. 12th Street, 3rd Fllor, West Tower, TSA-20, Arlington, VA 22202866-364-2872, 571-227-2300571-227-1406
Transportation Security AdministrationDepartment of Homeland SecurityTeri MillerFOIA Officerfoia@tsa.dhs.govFreedom of Information Act Branch, 601 S. 12th Street, 3rd Fllor, West Tower, TSA-20, Arlington, VA 22202866-364-2872, 571-227-2300571-227-1406
Transportation Security AdministrationDepartment of Homeland SecurityTeri MillerFOIA Officerfoia@tsa.dhs.govFreedom of Information Act Branch, 601 S. 12th Street, 3rd Fllor, West Tower, TSA-20, Arlington, VA 22202866-364-2872, 571-227-2300571-227-1406
U.S. Citizenship & Immigration ServicesDepartment of Homeland SecurityU.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services, National Records Center, FOIA/PA Office, P.O. Box 648010, Lee’s Summit, MO 64064-8010800-375-5283
U.S. Citizenship & Immigration ServicesDepartment of Homeland SecurityJill EgglestonFOIA Officeruscis.foia@uscis.dhs.govU.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services, National Records Center, FOIA/PA Office, P.O. Box 648010, Lee’s Summit, MO 64064-8010800-350-5521
U.S. Citizenship & Immigration ServicesDepartment of Homeland SecurityJill EgglestonFOIA Officeruscis.foia@uscis.dhs.govU.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services, National Records Center, FOIA/PA Office, P.O. Box 648010, Lee’s Summit, MO 64064-8010800-350-5521
U.S. Coast GuardDepartment of Homeland SecurityAmanda Ackersonefoia@uscg.milUnited States Coast Guard, ATTN: FOIA Coordinator, Commandant (CG-611), 2703 Martin Luther King Jr Ave, SE, Stop 7710, Washington, DC 20593-7710202-475-3522202-372-8413
U.S. Coast GuardDepartment of Homeland SecurityKathleen ClaiffeFOIA Officerefoia@uscg.milUnited States Coast Guard, ATTN: FOIA Coordinator, Commandant (CG-611), 2703 Martin Luther King Jr Ave, SE, Stop 7710, Washington, DC 20593-7710202-475-3522202-372-8413
U.S. Coast GuardDepartment of Homeland SecurityKathleen ClaiffeFOIA Officerefoia@uscg.milUnited States Coast Guard, ATTN: FOIA Coordinator, Commandant (CG-611), 2703 Martin Luther King Jr Ave, SE, Stop 7710, Washington, DC 20593-7710202-475-3522202-372-8413
U.S. Customs & Border ProtectionDepartment of Homeland SecurityU.S. Customs & Border Protection, Sabrina Burroughs, FOIA Officer, 90 K Street, NW, 9th Floor, Mail Stop 1181, Washington, DC 20229-1181202-325-0150
U.S. Customs & Border ProtectionDepartment of Homeland SecuritySabrina BurroughsFOIA OfficerU.S. Customs & Border Protection, Sabrina Burroughs, FOIA Officer, 90 K Street, NW, 9th Floor, Mail Stop 1181, Washington, DC 20229-1181202-325-0150
U.S. Customs & Border ProtectionDepartment of Homeland SecuritySabrina BurroughsFOIA OfficerU.S. Customs & Border Protection, Sabrina Burroughs, FOIA Officer, 90 K Street, NW, 9th Floor, Mail Stop 1181, Washington, DC 20229-1181202-325-0150
U.S. Immigration & Customs EnforcementDepartment of Homeland SecurityFernando PineiroFOIA Officerice-foia@dhs.govUnited States Immigration & Customs Enforcement, FOIA Office, 500 12th Street, SW, Stop 5009, Washington, DC 20536-5009202-732-4265202-732-4265
U.S. Immigration & Customs EnforcementDepartment of Homeland SecurityFernando PineiroDeputy, FOIA Officerice-foia@dhs.govUnited States Immigration & Customs Enforcement, FOIA Office, 500 12th Street, SW, Stop 5009, Washington, DC 20536-5009866-633-1182202-732-4265
U.S. Immigration & Customs EnforcementDepartment of Homeland SecurityFernando PineiroDeputy, FOIA Officerice-foia@dhs.govUnited States Immigration & Customs Enforcement, FOIA Office, 500 12th Street, SW, Stop 5009, Washington, DC 20536-5009866-633-1182202-732-4265
United States Secret ServiceDepartment of Homeland SecurityCommunications Center (FOIA/PA), 245 Murray Drive, Building T-5, Washington, DC 20223202-406-5586
United States Secret ServiceDepartment of Homeland SecurityKevin TyrrellFOIA OfficerFOIA@usss.dhs.govCommunications Center (FOIA/PA), 245 Murray Drive, Building T-5, Washington, DC 20223202-406-6370202-406-5586
HeadquartersDepartment of Housing and Urban DevelopmentDeborah SnowdenDeputy Chief FOIA Officerdeborah.r.snowden@hud.govChief FOIA Officer, Room 10139, 451 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20410-3000202-708-3866202-619-8365
HeadquartersDepartment of Housing and Urban DevelopmentSandra J. WrightFOIA SupervisorChief FOIA Officer, Room 10139, 451 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20410-3000202-708-3866202-619-8365
Region I (Boston, Hartford, Manchester, Providence)Department of Housing and Urban Development20 Church Street, 10th Floor, Hartford, CT 06103617-994-8218860-240-4850
Region I (Boston, Hartford, Manchester, Providence)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentCarmen RodriguezRegional FOIA Liaison – Region I (Connecticut)Carmen.I.Rodriguez@hud.gov20 Church Street, 10th Floor, Hartford, CT 06103860-240-9700860-240-4850
Region I (Boston, Hartford, Manchester, Providence)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentErika KoizumiRegional FOIA Liaison – Region I (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, ME, New Hampshire, Vermont)Erika.Koizumi@hud.gov20 Church Street, 10th Floor, Hartford, CT 06103(617) 994-8206860-240-4850
Region I (Boston, Hartford, Manchester, Providence)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentSuzanne PiacentiniFOIA Public LiaisonSuzanne.Piacentini@hud.gov20 Church Street, 10th Floor, Hartford, CT 06103860-240-9702860-240-4850
Region II (New York, Albany, Buffalo, Newark)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentAdam GlantzRegional FOIA LiaisonAdam.Glantz@hud.gov26 Federal Plaza, , New York, NY 10278-0068(212) 542-7158212-264-0246
Region II (New York, Albany, Buffalo, Newark)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentStephen E. MurphyFOIA Public LiaisonStephen.E.Murphy@hud.gov26 Federal Plaza, , New York, NY 10278-0068(212) 542-7109212-264-0246
Region III (Philadelphia, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Washington, D.C., Charleston, Wilmington)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentRichard M. Ott, FOIA Public Liaison, The Wanamaker Building, 100 Penn Square East, Philadelphia, PA 19107215-656-0600215-656-3445
Region III (Philadelphia, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Washington, D.C., Charleston, Wilmington)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentRichard M. OttFOIA Public LiaisonRichard.M.Ott@hud.govRichard M. Ott, FOIA Public Liaison, The Wanamaker Building, 100 Penn Square East, Philadelphia, PA 19107(215) 430-6621215-656-3445
Region III (Philadelphia, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Washington, D.C., Charleston, Wilmington)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentSheppard V. WilliamsRegional FOIA LiaisonSheppard.V.Williams@hud.govRichard M. Ott, FOIA Public Liaison, The Wanamaker Building, 100 Penn Square East, Philadelphia, PA 19107(215) 430-6628215-656-3445
Region IV (Atlanta, Birmingham, Caribbean, Columbia, Greensboro, Jackson, Jacksonville, Knoxville, Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, Miami, Orlando, Tampa)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentMichael L. Browder, FOIA Public Liaison, 40 Marietta Street, Atlanta, GA 30303404-331-5001 x2380404-730-2392
Region IV (Atlanta, Birmingham, Caribbean, Columbia, Greensboro, Jackson, Jacksonville, Knoxville, Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, Miami, Orlando, Tampa)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentJoy BeslowRegional FOIA LiaisonJoy.A.Beslow@hud.govMichael L. Browder, FOIA Public Liaison, 40 Marietta Street, Atlanta, GA 30303(678) 732-2010404-730-2392
Region IV (Atlanta, Birmingham, Caribbean, Columbia, Greensboro, Jackson, Jacksonville, Knoxville, Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, Miami, Orlando, Tampa)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentMichael L. BrowderFOIA Public LiaisonMichael.L.Browder@hud.govMichael L. Browder, FOIA Public Liaison, 40 Marietta Street, Atlanta, GA 30303(678) 732-2321404-730-2392
Region IX (San Francisco, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Sacramento)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentSan Francisco Regional Office, One Sansome Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94104916-498-7381
Region IX (San Francisco, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Sacramento)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentCollin J. EvensonRegional FOIA Liaison (Southern California)Collin.J.Evenson@hud.govSan Francisco Regional Office, One Sansome Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94104(213) 534-2508
Region IX (San Francisco, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Sacramento)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentDavid W. LockwoodRegional FOIA Liaison (Northern California, AZ, HI and NV)David.W.Lockwood@hud.govSan Francisco Regional Office, One Sansome Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94104(714) 955-0902
Region IX (San Francisco, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Sacramento)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentWayne E. SausedaFOIA Public LiaisonWayne.E.Sauseda@hud.govSan Francisco Regional Office, One Sansome Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94104415-489-6413
Region V (Chicago, Columbus, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentJames A. Cunningham, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2608, 77 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604312-353-5680 x2139312-913-8293
Region V (Chicago, Columbus, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentCatherine S. PetersonRegional FOIA LiaisonCatherine.S.Peterson@hud.govJames A. Cunningham, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2608, 77 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604(312) 913-8662312-913-8293
Region V (Chicago, Columbus, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis-St. Paul)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentJames A. CunninghamFOIA Public LiaisonJames.A.Cunningham@hud.govJames A. Cunningham, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2608, 77 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL 60604312-353-5680312-913-8293
Region VI (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentPatricia Campbell, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2500 Unit #45, 801 Cherry Street, Ft. Worth, TX 76102817-978-5974 x1010817-978-5669
Region VI (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentLeslie BradleyFOIA Public LiaisonLeslieann.Bradley@hud.govPatricia Campbell, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2500 Unit #45, 801 Cherry Street, Ft. Worth, TX 76102(817) 978-9406817-978-5669
Region VI (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentPatricia CampbellRegional FOIA LiaisonPatricia.A.Campbell@hud.govPatricia Campbell, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2500 Unit #45, 801 Cherry Street, Ft. Worth, TX 76102817-978-5974817-978-5669
Region VI (Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico and Oklahoma)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentScott C. HudmanFOIA LiaisonScott.C.Hudman@hud.govPatricia Campbell, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 2500 Unit #45, 801 Cherry Street, Ft. Worth, TX 76102(713) 718-3107817-978-5669
Region VII (Kansas City, Des Moines, Omaha, St. Louis)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentBradley.E.Streeter@hud.govBradley E. Streeter, Regional FOIA Liaison, 1222 Spruce Street, Suite 3.203, St. Louis, MO 63103913-551-5462913-551-5469
Region VII (Kansas City, Des Moines, Omaha, St. Louis)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentBradley StreeterRegional FOIA LiaisonBradley.E.Streeter@hud.govBradley E. Streeter, Regional FOIA Liaison, 1222 Spruce Street, Suite 3.203, St. Louis, MO 63103(314) 418-5410913-551-5469
Region VII (Kansas City, Des Moines, Omaha, St. Louis)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentBruce L. LaddFOIA Public Liaisonbruce.l.ladd@hud.govBradley E. Streeter, Regional FOIA Liaison, 1222 Spruce Street, Suite 3.203, St. Louis, MO 63103913-551-5537913-551-5469
Region VIII (Denver)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentCrystal KelleyRegional FOIA LiaisonCrystal.M.Kelley@hud.gov1670 Broadway , 25th Floor, Denver, CO 80202-4801303-672-5021303-672-2150
Region VIII (Denver)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentNatalie L. ChilcuttFOIA LiaisonNatalie.L.Chilcutt@hud.gov1670 Broadway , 25th Floor, Denver, CO 80202-4801303-672-2150
Region X (Seattle, Anchorage, Portland)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentMichael Look, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 200, 909 First Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-1000206-220-5101206-220-5108
Region X (Seattle, Anchorage, Portland)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentHamdi MohamedFOIA SpecilaistHamdi.A.Mohamed@hud.goMichael Look, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 200, 909 First Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-1000206-220-5362206-220-5108
Region X (Seattle, Anchorage, Portland)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentMichael LookFOIA Public LiaisonMichael.S.Look@hud.govMichael Look, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 200, 909 First Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-1000206-220-5359206-220-5108
Region X (Seattle, Anchorage, Portland)Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentPatricia WrightRegional FOIA LiaisonPatricia.Wright@hud.govMichael Look, FOIA Public Liaison, Suite 200, 909 First Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-1000206-220-5358206-220-5108
Antitrust DivisionDepartment of JusticeKenneth Hendricks, Chief, FOIA/PA Unit, Liberty Square Building, Suite 1000, 450 5th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-2692202-616-4529
Antitrust DivisionDepartment of JusticeWayne FosterKenneth Hendricks, Chief, FOIA/PA Unit, Liberty Square Building, Suite 1000, 450 5th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-2692202-616-4529
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and ExplosivesDepartment of JusticeAdam C. Siple, Division Chief, Room 4.E-301, 99 New York Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20226202-648-8740202-648-9619
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and ExplosivesDepartment of JusticeDarryl Webb and Johnny RosnerAdam C. Siple, Division Chief, Room 4.E-301, 99 New York Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20226202-648-7390202-648-9619
Civil DivisionDepartment of JusticeHirsh D. Kravitz, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Office, Room 8314, 1100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20035202-514-2319202-514-7866
Civil DivisionDepartment of JusticeHirsh D. KravitzHirsh D. Kravitz, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Office, Room 8314, 1100 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20035202-514-2319202-514-7866
Civil Rights DivisionDepartment of JusticeTink Cooper, Acting Chief, FOI/PA Branch, PHB Bldg., Room 9152, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-514-4210202-514-6195
Civil Rights DivisionDepartment of JusticeApril FreemanTink Cooper, Acting Chief, FOI/PA Branch, PHB Bldg., Room 9152, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-514-4210202-514-6195
Community Relations ServiceDepartment of JusticeMelody Diegor Caprio, FOIA/PA Coordinator, Suite 6000, 600 E Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-305-2935
Community Relations ServiceDepartment of JusticeMelody Diegor CaprioMelody Diegor Caprio, FOIA/PA Coordinator, Suite 6000, 600 E Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-353-1806
Criminal DivisionDepartment of JusticeAmanda M. Jones Acting Chief, FOIA/PA Unit, Suite 1127, Keeney Building 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20530-0001202-616-0307202-514-6117
Criminal DivisionDepartment of JusticeMargaret HarrisAmanda M. Jones Acting Chief, FOIA/PA Unit, Suite 1127, Keeney Building 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20530-0001202-616-0307202-514-6117
Drug Enforcement AdministrationDepartment of JusticeAngela D. Hertel, Acting Chief, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Unit, FOI/Records Management Section, 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, VA 22152202-307-7596202-307-8556
Drug Enforcement AdministrationDepartment of JusticeDeshelia WallaceAngela D. Hertel, Acting Chief, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Unit, FOI/Records Management Section, 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, VA 22152202-307-4264202-307-8556
Environment and Natural Resources DivisionDepartment of JusticeCharles Smiroldo, FOIA Coordinator, Law and Policy Section, P.O. Box 7415, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044-7415202-514-0424202-514-4231
Environment and Natural Resources DivisionDepartment of JusticeAmber BlahaCharles Smiroldo, FOIA Coordinator, Law and Policy Section, P.O. Box 7415, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044-7415202-616-5515202-514-4231
Executive Office for Immigration ReviewDepartment of JusticeJoseph R. Schaaf, Chief Counsel, Administrative Law Unit, Suite 1903, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041703-605-1297703-605-0570
Executive Office for Immigration ReviewDepartment of JusticeCrystal SouzaJoseph R. Schaaf, Chief Counsel, Administrative Law Unit, Suite 1903, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041703-605-1297703-605-0570
Executive Office for Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task ForcesDepartment of JusticeJill Aronica, FOIA Officer, Suite 1060, 1331 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, DC 20530202-307-7596
Executive Office for Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task ForcesDepartment of JusticeJennifer BilinskiJill Aronica, FOIA Officer, Suite 1060, 1331 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, DC 20530202-514-0296
Executive Office for United States AttorneysDepartment of JusticeKevin Krebs, Assistant Director, FOIA/Privacy Unit, 175 N Street, NE, Suite 5.400, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-252-6020202-252-6048
Executive Office for United States AttorneysDepartment of JusticeDonna PrestonKevin Krebs, Assistant Director, FOIA/Privacy Unit, 175 N Street, NE, Suite 5.400, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-252-6020202-252-6048
Executive Office for United States TrusteesDepartment of JusticePaul Bridenhagen, FOIA Officer, Office of the General Counsel, Suite 6150, 441 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-307-1399202-307-2397
Executive Office for United States TrusteesDepartment of JusticePaul BridenhagenPaul Bridenhagen, FOIA Officer, Office of the General Counsel, Suite 6150, 441 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-307-1399202-307-2397
Federal Bureau of InvestigationDepartment of JusticeDavid M. Hardy, Chief, Record/Information Dissemination Section, Records Management Division, 170 Marcel Drive, Winchester, VA 22602-4843540-868-1535540-868-4997
Federal Bureau of InvestigationDepartment of JusticeMichael G. SeidelDavid M. Hardy, Chief, Record/Information Dissemination Section, Records Management Division, 170 Marcel Drive, Winchester, VA 22602-4843540-868-2101540-868-4997
Federal Bureau of PrisonsDepartment of JusticeEugene Baime, Supervisory Attorney, Room 924, HOLC Building, 320 First Street, NW, Washington, DC 20534202-616-7750
Federal Bureau of PrisonsDepartment of JusticeC. Darnell StrobleEugene Baime, Supervisory Attorney, Room 924, HOLC Building, 320 First Street, NW, Washington, DC 20534202-616-7750
Foreign Claims Settlement CommissionDepartment of JusticeJeremy LaFrancois, Chief Administrative Counsel, Room 6330, 441 G Street, NW , Washington, DC 20579202-616-6975202-616-6993
Foreign Claims Settlement CommissionDepartment of JusticeJeremy LaFrancoisJeremy LaFrancois, Chief Administrative Counsel, Room 6330, 441 G Street, NW , Washington, DC 20579202-616-6975202-616-6993
INTERPOL-United States National Central BureauDepartment of JusticeINTERPOL Washington, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-616-0201, Fax: 202-616-1048202-616-1048
INTERPOL-United States National Central BureauDepartment of JusticeDaniel DembkowskiINTERPOL Washington, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-616-0201202-616-1048
Justice Management DivisionDepartment of JusticeKaren McFadden, FOIA Contact, Room 1111 RFK, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3101202-616-6695
Justice Management DivisionDepartment of JusticeKaren McFaddenKaren McFadden, FOIA Contact, Room 1111 RFK, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3101202-616-6695
National Security DivisionDepartment of JusticeArnetta Mallory, Government Information Specialist, 3 Constitution Square, 175 N Street N.E., 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20530202-233-2639
National Security DivisionDepartment of JusticePatricia MatthewsArnetta Mallory, Government Information Specialist, 3 Constitution Square, 175 N Street N.E., 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20530202-233-2639
Office of Community Oriented Policing ServicesDepartment of JusticeChaun E. Eason, FOIA Officer, Legal Division, Two Constitution Square, #11E 129, 145 N Street, NE, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-1873202-514-3456
Office of Community Oriented Policing ServicesDepartment of JusticeMelissa FieriFetrowChaun E. Eason, FOIA Officer, Legal Division, Two Constitution Square, #11E 129, 145 N Street, NE, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-1873202-514-3456
Office of Information PolicyDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 441 G St, NW, 6th Floor , Washington, DC 20530202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Information PolicyDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 441 G St, NW, 6th Floor , Washington, DC 20530202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Justice ProgramsDepartment of JusticeMonica Potter-Johnson, Government Information Specialist, Room 5400, 810 7th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20531202-307-6235202-307-1419
Office of Justice ProgramsDepartment of JusticeChandria SlaughterMonica Potter-Johnson, Government Information Specialist, Room 5400, 810 7th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20531202-307-0790202-307-1419
Office of Legal CounselDepartment of JusticeMelissa Golden, Lead Paralegal and FOIA Specialist, Room 5511, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-2053
Office of Legal CounselDepartment of JusticeMelissa GoldenMelissa Golden, Lead Paralegal and FOIA Specialist, Room 5511, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-2053
Office of Legal PolicyDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Legal PolicyDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Legislative AffairsDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Legislative AffairsDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Professional ResponsibilityDepartment of JusticePeggy McCarty, Deputy Director, Suite 3529, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-514-3365202-514-5050
Office of Professional ResponsibilityDepartment of JusticeGinae BarnettPeggy McCarty, Deputy Director, Suite 3529, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-514-3365202-514-5050
Office of Public AffairsDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of Public AffairsDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Associate Attorney GeneralDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Associate Attorney GeneralDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Attorney GeneralDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Attorney GeneralDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Deputy Attorney GeneralDepartment of JusticeDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Deputy Attorney GeneralDepartment of JusticeDouglas HibbardFOIA Public LiaisonDouglas Hibbard, Chief, Initial Request Staff, 6th Floor, 441 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-3642202-514-1009
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of JusticeDeborah M. Waller, Government Information Specialist, Room 4726, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-616-0646202-616-9152
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of JusticeDeborah M. WallerDeborah M. Waller, Government Information Specialist, Room 4726, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-616-0646202-616-9152
Office of the Pardon AttorneyDepartment of JusticeWilliam Taylor II, Executive Officer, Office of the Pardon Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20530202-616-6070202-616-6069
Office of the Pardon AttorneyDepartment of JusticeSarah E.B. RifkinWilliam Taylor II, Executive Officer, Office of the Pardon Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20530202-616-6070202-616-6069
Office of the Solicitor GeneralDepartment of JusticeValerie Yancey, FOIA Officer and Executive Officer, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Room 6627, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-616-9406
Office of the Solicitor GeneralDepartment of JusticeValerie YanceyValerie Yancey, FOIA Officer and Executive Officer, 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Room 6627, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-514-2203
Office of Tribal JusticeDepartment of JusticeKevin Krebs, Assistant Director, FOIA/Privacy Unit, Room 7300, 600 E Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-252-6020202-252-6047
Office of Tribal JusticeDepartment of JusticeDonna PrestonKevin Krebs, Assistant Director, FOIA/Privacy Unit, Room 7300, 600 E Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530-0001202-252-6020202-252-6047
Office on Violence Against WomenDepartment of JusticeCatherine Poston, Attorney Advisor, Suite 10W.121, 145 N Street, NE, Washington, DC 20530202-307-6026
Office on Violence Against WomenDepartment of JusticeCatherine PostonCatherine Poston, Attorney Advisor, Suite 10W.121, 145 N Street, NE, Washington, DC 20530202-307-6026
Professional Responsibility Advisory OfficeDepartment of JusticeMarguerite A. Driessen, Attorney Advisor, 6th Floor, 441 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-514-0458202-353-7483
Professional Responsibility Advisory OfficeDepartment of JusticeQuadira ZelekeMarguerite A. Driessen, Attorney Advisor, 6th Floor, 441 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20530202-514-0458202-353-7483
Select Department of Justice component for meDepartment of JusticeFOIA/PA Mail Referral Unit, Justice Management Division, Room 115, LOC Building, Washington, DC 20530(202) 616-5979
Tax DivisionDepartment of JusticeCarmen M. Banerjee, Division Counsel for FOIA and PA Matters, P.O. Box 227, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044202-616-3399
Tax DivisionDepartment of JusticeBillie WillisCarmen M. Banerjee, Division Counsel for FOIA and PA Matters, P.O. Box 227, Ben Franklin Station, Washington, DC 20044202-307-0462
United States Marshals ServiceDepartment of JusticeCharlotte Luckstone, FOIA Officer, Office of General Counsel, CG-3 15th Floor, Washington, DC 20530-1000703-740-3943
United States Marshals ServiceDepartment of JusticeLeila WassomCharlotte Luckstone, FOIA Officer, Office of General Counsel, CG-3 15th Floor, Washington, DC 20530-1000703-740-3943
United States Parole CommissionDepartment of JusticeAnissa Banks, FOIA/PA Specialist, 3rd Floor, 90 K Street, NE, Washington, DC 20530202-346-7030
United States Parole CommissionDepartment of JusticeHelen KrapelsAnissa Banks, FOIA/PA Specialist, 3rd Floor, 90 K Street, NE, Washington, DC 20530202-346-7030
Adjudicatory BoardsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Frank Clubb, Administrative Officer – U.S. Department of Labor, Adjudicatory Boards, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S5220, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-5035
Bureau of International Labor AffairsDepartment of LaborKia Gaskins, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-5303, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-4877202-693-4851
Bureau of International Labor AffairsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Kia Gaskins, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-5303, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-4851
Bureau of Labor StatisticsDepartment of LaborSytrina Toon, FOIA Disclosure Officer, Room 4080 Postal Square Building, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001202-691-7628202-691-5111
Bureau of Labor StatisticsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Sytrina Toon, FOIA Disclosure Officer, Room 4080 Postal Square Building, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001202-693-5427202-691-5111
Employee Benefits Security AdministrationDepartment of LaborKathy Hoover, FOIA Officer, Public Disclosure Room, Suite N-1513, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-8655202-219-8141
Employee Benefits Security AdministrationDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Kathy Hoover, FOIA Officer, Public Disclosure Room, Suite N-1513, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-219-8141
Employment & Training AdministrationDepartment of LaborMaria Sanders, FOIA Disclosure Officer, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210-0002202-693-3101202-693-2844
Employment & Training AdministrationDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Maria Sanders, FOIA Disclosure Officer, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210-0002202-693-5427202-693-2844
Jobs CorpsDepartment of LaborMaria Sanders, FOIA Disclosure Officer, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-0101202-693-2844
Jobs CorpsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Maria Sanders, FOIA Disclosure Officer, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-2844
Main OfficeDepartment of LaborRamona Branch Oliver, Director, Office of Information Services , Office of the Solicitor/MALS Division, Room N-2420, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5391202-693-5389
Main OfficeDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Ramona Branch Oliver, Director, Office of Information Services , Office of the Solicitor/MALS Division, Room N-2420, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-5389
Mine Safety & Health AdministrationDepartment of LaborLanesia Washington, FOIA Officer, Room 5W231, 12th Street South, Arlington, VA 22202202-693-9424202-963-9441
Mine Safety & Health AdministrationDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Lanesia Washington, FOIA Officer, Room 5W231, 12th Street South, Arlington, VA 22202202-693-5427202-963-9441
Occupational Safety & Health AdministrationDepartment of LaborChristopher Durso, FOIA Officer, Room N3647, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-2009202-693-1635
Occupational Safety & Health AdministrationDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Christopher Durso, FOIA Officer, Room N3647, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-1635
Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental AffairsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Glenda Manning, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S2220, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-4641
Office of Federal Contract Compliance ProgramsDepartment of LaborBruce Andersen, FOIA Coordinator, USDOL OFCCP, Room C-3325, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-0101202-693-5538
Office of Federal Contract Compliance ProgramsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Bruce Andersen, FOIA Coordinator, USDOL OFCCP, Room C-3325, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-5538
Office of Labor-Management StandardsDepartment of LaborEbony Griffin, FOIA Coordinator, Suite N-5609, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-0112202-693-1340
Office of Labor-Management StandardsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Ebony Griffin, FOIA Coordinator, Suite N-5609, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-1340
Office of Public AffairsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Beverly Eaves, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of Public Affairs, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S2514, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-5057
Office of the Administrative Law JudgesDepartment of LaborFrank Clubb, FOIA Disclosure Officer, Suite 400 North, 800 K Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001-8002202-693-7440202-693-7365
Office of the Administrative Law JudgesDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Frank Clubb, FOIA Disclosure Officer, Suite 400 North, 800 K Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001-8002202-693-5427202-693-7365
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and ManagementDepartment of LaborCandy March, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-3317, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-7126202-693-7954
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and ManagementDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Candy March, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-3317, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-7954
Office of the Assistant Secretary for PolicyDepartment of LaborTerry FryerPrimary FOIA Contactfryer.terry@dol.govTerry Fryer, U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S2312, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5960
Office of the Assistant Secretary for PolicyDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Terry Fryer, U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S2312, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-5960
Office of the Chief Financial OfficerDepartment of LaborChris PolenPrimary FOIA Contactpolen.chris.p@dol.govChris Polen, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of the Chief Financial Officer, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S4030, Washington, DC 20210202-693-6825202-693-6934
Office of the Chief Financial OfficerDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Chris Polen, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of the Chief Financial Officer, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room S4030, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-6934
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of LaborKimberly Pacheco, Disclosure Officer, Room S-5506, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5116202-693-7020
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Kimberly Pacheco, Disclosure Officer, Room S-5506, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-7020
Office of the SolicitorDepartment of LaborSharon Hudson, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of the Solicitor (MALS Division), 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room N2420, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5389
Office of the SolicitorDepartment of LaborSharon Hudson, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of the Solicitor (MALS Division), 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room N2420, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5389
Office of the SolicitorDepartment of LaborSharon HudsonSOL Primary FOIA Contact/DOL Liaisonhudson.sharon@dol.govSharon Hudson, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of the Solicitor (MALS Division), 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room N2420, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5406202-693-5389
Office of the SolicitorDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Sharon Hudson, U.S. Department of Labor – Office of the Solicitor (MALS Division), 200 Constitution Avenue, NW – Room N2420, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-5389
Office of Workers’ Compensation ProgramsDepartment of LaborMia Day, FOIA Coordinator, Suite N-5609, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-0125202-693-1378
Office of Workers’ Compensation ProgramsDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Mia Day, FOIA Coordinator, Suite N-5609, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-1378
Select Department of Labor component for meDepartment of LaborRamona Branch OliverDirector, Office of Information Services , Office of the Solicitor/MALS Divisionfoiarequest@dol.govRoom N-2420, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210(202) 693-5391(202) 693-5389
Select Department of Labor component for meDepartment of LaborRamona Branch Oliverfoiarequest@dol.govRoom N-2420, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210(202) 693-5391(202) 693-5389
Select Department of Labor component for meDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicksfoiarequest@dol.govRoom N-2420, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210(202) 693-5427(202) 693-5389
Veterans’ Employment & Training ServiceDepartment of LaborCarrie Timus, National FOIA Officer, Room S-1325, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-4700202-693-4755
Veterans’ Employment & Training ServiceDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Carrie Timus, National FOIA Officer, Room S-1325, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-4755
Wage and Hour DivisionDepartment of LaborMichelle Moreno, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-3201, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-1350202-693-0637
Wage and Hour DivisionDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Michelle Moreno, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-3201, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-0637
Women’s BureauDepartment of LaborCheryl Edwards, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-3305, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-6735202-693-6746
Women’s BureauDepartment of LaborThomas G. Hicks, Sr.Cheryl Edwards, FOIA Coordinator, Room S-3305, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20210202-693-5427202-693-6746
Department of StateDepartment of StateDirector, Office of Information Programs and Services, Building SA-2, 515 22nd Street, NW, Washington, DC 20522-8100202-261-8484202-261-8579
Department of StateDepartment of StateKellie N. RobinsonFOIA Program Manager/FOIA Public Liaisonfoiarequest@state.govDirector, Office of Information Programs and Services, Building SA-2, 515 22nd Street, NW, Washington, DC 20522-8100202-261-8484202-261-8579
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of StateStephanie Fox, FOIA Officer, 1700 North Moore Street, Suite 1400, Arlington, VA 22209202-663-0389202-663-0390
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of StateStephanie FoxFOIA Public Liaisonfoia@stateoig.govStephanie Fox, FOIA Officer, 1700 North Moore Street, Suite 1400, Arlington, VA 22209571-348-3815202-663-0390
Bureau of Indian AffairsDepartment of the InteriorJessica Rogers, FOIA Officer, MS-4658, MIB, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-208-3135202-208-6597
Bureau of Indian AffairsDepartment of the InteriorJessica RogersJessica Rogers, FOIA Officer, MS-4658, MIB, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-208-3135202-208-6597
Bureau of Land ManagementDepartment of the InteriorKeiosha Alexander, Acting FOIA Officer, Attn: FOIA, Washington Office Coordinators, MS: WO-640, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-912-7650
Bureau of Land ManagementDepartment of the InteriorKeiosha Alexander (Acting)Keiosha Alexander, Acting FOIA Officer, Attn: FOIA, Washington Office Coordinators, MS: WO-640, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-912-7566
Bureau of Ocean Energy ManagementDepartment of the InteriorTasha Alcantara, FOIA Officer, VAM-BOEM DIR, 45600 Woodland Road, Sterling, VA 20166703-787-1818703-787-1209
Bureau of Ocean Energy ManagementDepartment of the InteriorTasha AlcantaraTasha Alcantara, FOIA Officer, VAM-BOEM DIR, 45600 Woodland Road, Sterling, VA 20166703-787-1818703-787-1209
Bureau of ReclamationDepartment of the InteriorMichelle Piland, FOIA Officer, 84-21200, P.O. Box 25007, Denver, CO 80225-0007303-445-3292303-445-6575
Bureau of ReclamationDepartment of the InteriorMichelle PilandMichelle Piland, FOIA Officer, 84-21200, P.O. Box 25007, Denver, CO 80225-0007303-445-6575
Bureau of Safety and Environmental EnforcementDepartment of the InteriorDorothy Tinker, FOIA Officer (Acting), VAE-BSEE-FOIA, 45600 Woodland Road, Sterling, VA 20166703-787-1404703-787-1207
Bureau of Safety and Environmental EnforcementDepartment of the InteriorDorothy Tinker (Acting)Dorothy Tinker, FOIA Officer (Acting), VAE-BSEE-FOIA, 45600 Woodland Road, Sterling, VA 20166703-787-1404703-787-1207
National Park ServiceDepartment of the InteriorCharis Wilson, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 25287, 12795 W. Alameda Parkway, Denver, CO 80225303-969-2959303-969-2557
National Park ServiceDepartment of the InteriorCharis WilsonCharis Wilson, FOIA Officer, P.O. Box 25287, 12795 W. Alameda Parkway, Denver, CO 80225303-969-2959303-969-2557
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and EnforcementDepartment of the InteriorDele Awoniyi, FOIA Officer, MS-233, SIB, 1849 C Street NW, MS 1200W-MIB , Washington, DC 20240202-208-5840202-219-3092
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and EnforcementDepartment of the InteriorDele AwoniyiDele Awoniyi, FOIA Officer, MS-233, SIB, 1849 C Street NW, MS 1200W-MIB , Washington, DC 20240202-208-5840202-219-3092
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of the InteriorStefanie Jewett, FOIA Officer, Office of Inspector General U.S. Department of the Interior MS-4428, 1849 C Street, NW , Washington, DC 20240202-208-6464
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of the InteriorStefanie JewettStefanie Jewett, FOIA Officer, Office of Inspector General U.S. Department of the Interior MS-4428, 1849 C Street, NW , Washington, DC 20240202-208-0954
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of the InteriorClarice Julka, FOIA Officer, MS-7328, MIB, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-513-0765202-219-2374
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of the InteriorClarice JulkaClarice Julka, FOIA Officer, MS-7328, MIB, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-208-6045202-219-2374
Office of the SolicitorDepartment of the InteriorLance Purvis, FOIA Officer, MS-6540, MIB, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-208-5817202-208-5206
Office of the SolicitorDepartment of the InteriorLance PurvisLance Purvis, FOIA Officer, MS-6540, MIB, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, DC 20240202-208-5817202-208-5206
Office of the Special TrusteeDepartment of the InteriorMeleanie Lowery, FOIA Officer, 1849 C Street, NW, Room 3211, Washington, DC 20240505-816-1645
Office of the Special TrusteeDepartment of the InteriorMeleanie LoweryMeleanie Lowery, FOIA Officer, 1849 C Street, NW, Room 3211, Washington, DC 20240505-816-5521
U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceDepartment of the InteriorCathy Willis, FOIA Officer (Acting), MS-IRTM, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041703-358-2291703-358-2251
U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceDepartment of the InteriorCathy Willis (Acting)Cathy Willis, FOIA Officer (Acting), MS-IRTM, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041720-425-5173703-358-2251
U.S. Geological SurveyDepartment of the InteriorBrian May, FOIA Officer, 5522 Research Park Drive, Baltimore, MD 21228443-498-5521443-498-5510
U.S. Geological SurveyDepartment of the InteriorBrian MayBrian May, FOIA Officer, 5522 Research Park Drive, Baltimore, MD 21228443-498-5521443-498-5510
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade BureauDepartment of the TreasuryQuinton Mason, FOIA Contact, Disclosure Services, Box 12, 1310 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005202-927-1024202-453-2331
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade BureauDepartment of the TreasuryPaul LevitanDirector, FOIA & TransparencyFOIAPL@treasury.govQuinton Mason, FOIA Contact, Disclosure Services, Box 12, 1310 G Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005(202) 622-8098202-453-2331
Bureau of Engraving and PrintingDepartment of the TreasuryDisclosure OfficerFOIA ContactLeslie Rivera Pag<e1>n, Disclosure Officer; Office of the Chief Counsel, 14th & C Streets, SW Room 419A, Washington, DC 20228(202) 874-2500202-874-2951
Bureau of Engraving and PrintingDepartment of the TreasuryPaul LevitanDirector, FOIA & TransparencyFOIAPL@treasury.govLeslie Rivera Pag<e1>n, Disclosure Officer; Office of the Chief Counsel, 14th & C Streets, SW Room 419A, Washington, DC 20228(202) 622-8098202-874-2951
Bureau of the Fiscal ServiceDepartment of the TreasuryCynthia Sydnor/Denise Nelson, Disclosure Officer, Room 508B, 401 14th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20227202-874-5602202-874-5484
Bureau of the Fiscal ServiceDepartment of the TreasuryPaul LevitanDirector, FOIA & TransparencyFOIAPL@treasury.govCynthia Sydnor/Denise Nelson, Disclosure Officer, Room 508B, 401 14th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20227(202) 622-8098202-874-5484
Departmental OfficesDepartment of the TreasuryPaul Levitan, Director, FOIA & Transparency, 1750 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20220202-622-0930202-622-3895
Departmental OfficesDepartment of the TreasuryPaul LevitanDirector, FOIA & TransparencyFOIAPL@treasury.govPaul Levitan, Director, FOIA & Transparency, 1750 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20220(202) 622-8098202-622-3895
Financial Crimes Enforcement NetworkDepartment of the TreasuryRosemary Law, Disclosure (FOIA) Office, P.O. Box 39, Vienna, VA 22183703-905-5034
Financial Crimes Enforcement NetworkDepartment of the TreasuryPaul LevitanDirector, FOIA & TransparencyFOIAPL@treasury.govRosemary Law, Disclosure (FOIA) Office, P.O. Box 39, Vienna, VA 22183(202) 622-8098
Internal Revenue Service – Headquarters OfficeDepartment of the TreasuryDenise Higley, FOIA Contact, IRS FOIA Request, Stop 211, PO Box 621506, Atlanta, GA 30362-3006801-620-7638877-807-9215
Internal Revenue Service – Headquarters OfficeDepartment of the TreasuryDenise HigleyDenise Higley, FOIA Contact, IRS FOIA Request, Stop 211, PO Box 621506, Atlanta, GA 30362-3006801-620-7638877-807-9215
Office of the Comptroller of the CurrencyDepartment of the TreasuryFrank Vance, Freedom of Information Act Officer, Suite 3-E218, 400 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20219202-649-6700
Office of the Comptroller of the CurrencyDepartment of the TreasuryFrank VanceFrank Vance, Freedom of Information Act Officer, Suite 3-E218, 400 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20219202-649-6758
Treasury Inspector General for Tax AdministrationDepartment of the TreasuryAmy P. Jones, Disclosure Officer, Suite 469, ATTN: FOIA Request, TIGTA Office of Chief Counsel, Disclosure Branch, City Center Building, 1401 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005202-622-4068202-622-3339
Treasury Inspector General for Tax AdministrationDepartment of the TreasuryAmy P. JonesAmy P. Jones, Disclosure Officer, Suite 469, ATTN: FOIA Request, TIGTA Office of Chief Counsel, Disclosure Branch, City Center Building, 1401 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005202-622-4068202-622-3339
United States MintDepartment of the TreasuryLateau Jones, FOIA Contact, 8th Floor, 801 9th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20220202-354-6788202-756-6153
United States MintDepartment of the TreasuryPaul LevitanDirector, FOIA & TransparencyFOIAPL@treasury.govLateau Jones, FOIA Contact, 8th Floor, 801 9th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20220(202) 622-8098202-756-6153
Federal Aviation AdministrationDepartment of TransportationDedra Goodman, FOIA Coordinator, National FOIA Staff (AFN-400), 800 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20591202-267-0983202-493-5032
Federal Aviation AdministrationDepartment of TransportationDedra GoodmanDedra Goodman, FOIA Coordinator, National FOIA Staff (AFN-400), 800 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20591202-493-5032
Federal Aviation AdministrationDepartment of TransportationDedra GoodmanDedra Goodman, FOIA Coordinator, National FOIA Staff (AFN-400), 800 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20591202-267-7799202-493-5032
Federal Highway AdministrationDepartment of TransportationManizheh Boehm, FOIA/PA Contact, HCC-40/E84-125, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-0948202-366-1380
Federal Highway AdministrationDepartment of TransportationChristopher RichardsonManizheh Boehm, FOIA/PA Contact, HCC-40/E84-125, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-0780202-366-1380
Federal Motor Carrier Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationJennifer Weatherly, FOIA/PA Contact (MC-MMI), W64-304, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-2960202-385-2335
Federal Motor Carrier Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationDuane DeBruyneJennifer Weatherly, FOIA/PA Contact (MC-MMI), W64-304, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-9999202-385-2335
Federal Railroad AdministrationDepartment of TransportationDenise Kollehlon, FOIA/PA Contact, Office of the Chief Counsel, Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-493-6065202-493-6068
Federal Railroad AdministrationDepartment of TransportationTimothy BarkleyDenise Kollehlon, FOIA/PA Contact, Office of the Chief Counsel, Stop 10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-493-1305202-493-6068
Federal Transit AdministrationDepartment of TransportationNancy Sipes, FOIA/PA Contact, E42-315, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-2494202-366-7164
Federal Transit AdministrationDepartment of TransportationDavid LongoNancy Sipes, FOIA/PA Contact, E42-315, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-0608202-366-7164
Maritime AdministrationDepartment of TransportationT. Mitchell Hudson, Jr., FOIA Officer, Division of Legislation and Regulations, W24-220, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-2666202-366-7485
Maritime AdministrationDepartment of TransportationAnn HerchenriderT. Mitchell Hudson, Jr., FOIA Officer, Division of Legislation and Regulations, W24-220, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-5165202-366-7485
Maritime AdministrationDepartment of TransportationT. Mitchell Hudson, Jr.T. Mitchell Hudson, Jr., FOIA Officer, Division of Legislation and Regulations, W24-220, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-5320202-366-7485
National Highway Traffic Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationFOIA Contact, NHTSA Executive Secretariat, W41-304, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-1834202-493-2929
National Highway Traffic Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationMary SpragueFOIA Contact, NHTSA Executive Secretariat, W41-304, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-2330202-493-2929
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of TransportationSeth KaufmanVacant, FOIA Officer, 7th Floor, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-2462202-366-1975
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of TransportationVacantVacant, FOIA Officer, 7th Floor, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-6131202-366-1975
Office of the Inspector GeneralDepartment of TransportationVacantFOIA Requester Service CenterVacant, FOIA Officer, 7th Floor, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-6131202-366-1975
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of TransportationMichael Bell, FOIA Officer, W94-122, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-8536
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of TransportationDarlene WallaceMichael Bell, FOIA Officer, W94-122, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-4542202-366-8536
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of TransportationFern KaufmanMichael Bell, FOIA Officer, W94-122, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-8067202-366-8536
Office of the SecretaryDepartment of TransportationMichael BellFOIA OfficerMichael Bell, FOIA Officer, W94-122, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-5546202-366-8536
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationMadeline Van Nostrand, FOIA Officer, E23-306, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-4400202-336-7041
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationMadeline Van NostrandMadeline Van Nostrand, FOIA Officer, E23-306, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-0273202-336-7041
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety AdministrationDepartment of TransportationSusan HandMadeline Van Nostrand, FOIA Officer, E23-306, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-6973202-336-7041
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development CorporationDepartment of TransportationKevin O’Malley, FOIA/PA Contact (Acting), 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-6510202-366-6448
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development CorporationDepartment of TransportationFern KaufmanKevin O’Malley, FOIA/PA Contact (Acting), 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20590202-366-8067202-366-6448
Board of Veterans AppealsDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (01C1) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-8111202-343-1422
Board of Veterans AppealsDepartment of Veterans AffairsVACO FOIA ServiceVA FOIAvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (01C1) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-8111202-343-1422
Board of Veterans AppealsDepartment of Veterans AffairsVACO FOIA ServiceVA FOIAvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (01C1) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-8111202-343-1422
Corporate Data Center OperationsDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn Buckvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (0050O6), Philadelphia Information Technology Center, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19144877 750-3642215-381-3527
Corporate Data Center OperationsDepartment of Veterans AffairsThomas BarnasevitchFOIA Officercdcofoia@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (0050O6), Philadelphia Information Technology Center, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19144215 842-2000 X 4460215-381-3527
National Cemetery AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (43D) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-6214202-501-2240
National Cemetery AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsNikki BennsFOIA Officernca.foia@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (43D) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420703 441-4027202-501-2240
National Cemetery AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsRaynell LazierDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (43D) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-6214202-501-2240
Office of Asset Enterprise ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs(044) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-590-8793202-632-7146
Office of Asset Enterprise ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDepartment of Veterans Affairs(044) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 204201-877-750-3642202-632-7146
Office of Asset Enterprise ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsKelli EmeryFOIA ContactDepartment of Veterans Affairs(044) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-590-8793202-632-7146
Office of Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Legislative AffairsDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (009) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-6619202-273-6792
Office of Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Legislative AffairsDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDirector PIIPVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (009) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-273-6792
Office of Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Legislative AffairsDepartment of Veterans AffairsRegina Mack-AbneyFOIA OfficerDepartment of Veterans Affairs (009) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-6459202-273-6792
Office of Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (006) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-632-7310202-461-7754
Office of Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDepartment of Veterans Affairs (006) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877 750-3642202-461-7754
Office of Assistant Secretary for Human Resources and AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsTeresa DaysFOIA OfficerVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (006) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202461-7754202-461-7754
Office of Assistant Secretary for Information and TechnologyDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (005R1C) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877-750-3642202-632-7581
Office of Assistant Secretary for Information and TechnologyDepartment of Veterans AffairsDoloras JohnsonFOIA Officervacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (005R1C) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877 750-3642202-632-7581
Office of Assistant Secretary for Information and TechnologyDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDepartment of Veterans Affairs (005R1C) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877-750-3642202-632-7581
Office of Assistant Secretary for Information and Technology – VA Central Office FOIA/Privacy Act OfficeDepartment of Veterans AffairsFOIA Public Liaisonvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (005R1C) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877-750-3642202-632-7581
Office of Assistant Secretary for Information and Technology – VA Central Office FOIA/Privacy Act OfficeDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (005R1C) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877-750-3642202-632-7581
Office of Assistant Secretary for Information and Technology – VA Central Office FOIA/Privacy Act OfficeDepartment of Veterans AffairsJames Killens IIIFOIA Officervacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (005R1C) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877 750-3642202-632-7581
Office of Assistant Secretary for ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (004A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-6677202-273-6892
Office of Assistant Secretary for ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsJames ChungFOIA Officervacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (004A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-7305202-273-6892
Office of Assistant Secretary for ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (004A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877 750 3642202-273-6892
Office of Assistant Secretary for Public and Intergovernmental AffairsDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (002B) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-7442202-273-7635
Office of Assistant Secretary for Public and Intergovernmental AffairsDepartment of Veterans AffairsAnita MajorFOIA Officervacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (002B) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-7430202-273-7635
Office of Assistant Secretary for Public and Intergovernmental AffairsDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn Buckvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (002B) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877-750-3642202-273-7635
Office of Construction & Facilities ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (OOCM2) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-8212202-632-5825
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (032A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-5046202-273-7091
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsJacqurs LarochelleFOIA OfficerDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (032A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-5041202-273-7091
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDirector, FOIA PIIPVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (032A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-273-7091
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for BudgetDepartment of Veterans AffairsSarah Kalis, FOIA Contact, (041C/D) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-5170202-273-6628
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for BudgetDepartment of Veterans AffairsJames HoranSarah Kalis, FOIA Contact, (041C/D) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-5170202-273-6628
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for FinanceDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (047GD) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-6432202-273-7850
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for FinanceDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn Buckvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (047GD) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-5035202-273-7850
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for FinanceDepartment of Veterans AffairsKevin ConeFOIA Officervacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (047GD) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-5035202-273-7850
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Resources ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (054A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-7863202-273-7871
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Resources ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsJean HayesFOIA OfficerDepartment of Veterans Affairs (054A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-7863202-273-7871
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Resources ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDepartment of Veterans Affairs (054A) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-273-7871
Office of Diversity and InclusionDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (06) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-4010202-501-2145
Office of Diversity and InclusionDepartment of Veterans AffairsAngela DunnFOIA OfficerVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (06) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-4237202-501-2145
Office of Diversity and InclusionDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (06) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-4237202-501-2145
Office of Enterprise IntegrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (008) VACO, Room 314, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-5198202-273-5993
Office of Enterprise IntegrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsBelinda AlviesFOIA OfficerVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (008) VACO, Room 314, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-273-5993
Office of Enterprise IntegrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDirector PIIPVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (008) VACO, Room 314, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-273-5993
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW (50CI), Washington, DC 20420202-461-4591202-495-5859
Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Veterans AffairsRuthlee Gowins-BellamyFOIA Officervaoigfoia-pa@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW (50CI), Washington, DC 20420202-461-4412202-495-5859
Office of Procurement Policy ServicesDepartment of Veterans AffairsRichard Ha, FOIA Officer, Office of Procurement Policy Services (OALC-PPS), Room 3E.405, 425 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001202-343-1434
Office of Procurement Policy ServicesDepartment of Veterans AffairsRichard Ha, FOIA Officer, Office of Procurement Policy Services (OALC-PPS), Room 3E.405, 425 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001202-632-5286202-343-1434
Office of Resolution ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs (08) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-501-2827202-501-2811
Office of Resolution ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (08) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-501-2811
Office of Resolution ManagementDepartment of Veterans AffairsNigel CollieFOIA Officerormfoia@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs (08) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-0227202-501-2811
Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business UtilizationDepartment of Veterans AffairsFOIA Public LiaisonVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (00SB) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877 750-3642202-461-4301
Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business UtilizationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (00SB) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-303-3260 x5429202-461-4301
Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business UtilizationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (00SB) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-4301
Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business UtilizationDepartment of Veterans AffairsTyrone BrownFOIA Officerosdbufoia@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (00SB) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 632-8204202-461-4301
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Operations, Security, and PreparednessDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (007) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-6587202-461-0963
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Operations, Security, and PreparednessDepartment of Veterans AffairsJohn BuckDirector, PIIPVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (007) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-0963
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Operations, Security, and PreparednessDepartment of Veterans AffairsTanya Al-KhateebFOIA Officervacoospfoia@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (007) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-6587202-461-0963
Office of the Executive SecretaryDepartment of Veterans AffairsVeterans Affairs Public LiasonVACOFOIAService@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 002B VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420877 750-3642202-273-4880
Office of the Executive SecretaryDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 002B VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-4857202-273-4880
Office of the Executive SecretaryDepartment of Veterans AffairsLisa MatuszczakFOIA OfficerOSVAFOIA@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 002B VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 461-4857202-273-4880
Office of the General CounselDepartment of Veterans AffairsM.Renee Baxter, FOIA Contact, (026H) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-7717202-273-9299
Office of the General CounselDepartment of Veterans AffairsM.Renee BaxterM.Renee Baxter, FOIA Contact, (026H) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-461-7717202-273-9299
Veterans Benefits AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (20M33) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-491-9439202-635-8925
Veterans Benefits AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsGwendolyn SmithFOIA Officerfoia.vbaco@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (20M33) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202 632-8928202-635-8925
Veterans Benefits AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsGwendolyn SmithDepartment of Veterans Affairs, (20M33) VACO, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420202-491-9439202-635-8925
Veterans Health AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsFOIA Public Liasonvacofoiaservice@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Ave (10P2C1) VACO, Washington, DC 20420877-750-3642202-273-9386
Veterans Health AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Ave (10P2C1) VACO, Washington, DC 20420215-823-4146202-273-9386
Veterans Health AdministrationDepartment of Veterans AffairsMichael SarichDirector FOIA Servicevhafoia2@va.govDepartment of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Ave (10P2C1) VACO, Washington, DC 20420877 461-5038202-273-9386
Environmental Protection AgencyEnvironmental Protection AgencyNational Freedom of Information Officer, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite WJCN 5315, Mail Code 2310A, Washington, DC 20460202-566-1667
Environmental Protection AgencyEnvironmental Protection AgencyMatthew Z. LeopoldGeneral Counsel – Chief FOIA OfficerNational Freedom of Information Officer, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite WJCN 5315, Mail Code 2310A, Washington, DC 20460
Environmental Protection AgencyEnvironmental Protection AgencyTimothy R. EppNational FOIA Officehq.foia@epa.govNational Freedom of Information Officer, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite WJCN 5315, Mail Code 2310A, Washington, DC 20460202-566-1667
Atlanta District Office (Savannah Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionNadetia Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 100 Alabama Street, SW, Atlanta, GA 30303404-562-6909
Atlanta District Office (Savannah Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govNadetia Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 100 Alabama Street, SW, Atlanta, GA 303031-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)404-562-6909
Atlanta District Office (Savannah Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionNadetia WilliamsRecords Disclosure CoordinatorATLAFOIA@eeoc.govNadetia Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 100 Alabama Street, SW, Atlanta, GA 30303404-562-6993404-562-6909
Birmingham District Office (Mobile Local Office; Jackson Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionAlicia Vickers, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Ridge Park Place, Suite 2000, 1130 22nd Street, Birmingham, AL 35205205-212-2105
Birmingham District Office (Mobile Local Office; Jackson Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govAlicia Vickers, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Ridge Park Place, Suite 2000, 1130 22nd Street, Birmingham, AL 352051-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)205-212-2105
Birmingham District Office (Mobile Local Office; Jackson Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionAlicia VickersRecords Disclosure CoordinatorBIRMFOIA@eeoc.govAlicia Vickers, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Ridge Park Place, Suite 2000, 1130 22nd Street, Birmingham, AL 35205(205) 212-2069205-212-2105
Charlotte District Office (Greensboro, Greenville, Norfolk, Richmond Local Offices; Raleigh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFrancine Michaelson, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 400 , 129 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202704-344-6734
Charlotte District Office (Greensboro, Greenville, Norfolk, Richmond Local Offices; Raleigh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govFrancine Michaelson, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 400 , 129 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 282021-877-869-1802 , 202-663-7026 TTY704-344-6734
Charlotte District Office (Greensboro, Greenville, Norfolk, Richmond Local Offices; Raleigh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFrancine MichaelsonRecords Disclosure CoordinatorCHARFOIA@eeoc.govFrancine Michaelson, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 400 , 129 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202704-954-6424704-344-6734
Chicago District Office (Milwaukee and Minneapolis Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionSylvia Bustos, Records Disclosure Coordinator, JCK Federal Bldg., 230 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60604312-869-8220
Chicago District Office (Milwaukee and Minneapolis Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govSylvia Bustos, Records Disclosure Coordinator, JCK Federal Bldg., 230 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 606041-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)312-869-8220
Chicago District Office (Milwaukee and Minneapolis Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDawn Leroy (Milwaukee)Records Disclosure CoordinatorMILWFOIA@eeoc.govSylvia Bustos, Records Disclosure Coordinator, JCK Federal Bldg., 230 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60604(414) 297-1244312-869-8220
Chicago District Office (Milwaukee and Minneapolis Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionJanice Abosi (Minneapolis)Records Disclosure CoordinatorMINNFOIA@eeoc.govSylvia Bustos, Records Disclosure Coordinator, JCK Federal Bldg., 230 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60604(612) 335-4060312-869-8220
Chicago District Office (Milwaukee and Minneapolis Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionSylvia Bustos (Chicago)Records Disclosure CoordinatorCHICFOIA@eeoc.govSylvia Bustos, Records Disclosure Coordinator, JCK Federal Bldg., 230 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60604312-872-9736312-869-8220
Dallas District Office (San Antonio Field Office; El Paso Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionRasheedah McDonald, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 3rd Floor, 207 S. Houston Street, Dallas, TX 75202-4726214-253-2720
Dallas District Office (San Antonio Field Office; El Paso Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govRasheedah McDonald, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 3rd Floor, 207 S. Houston Street, Dallas, TX 75202-47261-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)214-253-2720
Dallas District Office (San Antonio Field Office; El Paso Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDan Whalen (San Antonio & El Paso)Records Disclosure CoordinatorSAFOFOIA@eeoc.govRasheedah McDonald, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 3rd Floor, 207 S. Houston Street, Dallas, TX 75202-4726210-281-7680214-253-2720
Dallas District Office (San Antonio Field Office; El Paso Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionGeorge Sanders (Dallas)Records Disclosure CoordinatorDALLASFOIA@eeoc.govRasheedah McDonald, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 3rd Floor, 207 S. Houston Street, Dallas, TX 75202-4726(972) 918-3637214-253-2720
Dallas District Office (San Antonio Field Office; El Paso Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionRasheedah McDonald (Dallas)Records Disclosure CoordinatorDALLASFOIA@eeoc.govRasheedah McDonald, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 3rd Floor, 207 S. Houston Street, Dallas, TX 75202-4726(972) 918-3617214-253-2720
Houston District Office (New Orleans Field Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionVy Nguyen, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 6th Floor, 1919 Smith Street, 7th Floor, Houston, TX 77002713-651-4902
Houston District Office (New Orleans Field Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govVy Nguyen, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 6th Floor, 1919 Smith Street, 7th Floor, Houston, TX 770021-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)713-651-4902
Houston District Office (New Orleans Field Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionMacKenzie Eady (New Orleans)Records Disclosure CoordinatorNEWOFOIA@eeoc.govVy Nguyen, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 6th Floor, 1919 Smith Street, 7th Floor, Houston, TX 77002504-595-2854713-651-4902
Houston District Office (New Orleans Field Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionVy Nguyen (Houston)Records Disclosure CoordinatorHOUSFOIA@eeoc.govVy Nguyen, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 6th Floor, 1919 Smith Street, 7th Floor, Houston, TX 77002713-651-4953713-651-4902
Indianapolis District Office (Detroit Field Office; Cincinnati and Louisville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDonna E. Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1900, 101 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, IN 46204-4203317-226-7953
Indianapolis District Office (Detroit Field Office; Cincinnati and Louisville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDonna E. Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1900, 101 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, IN 46204-4203317-226-7953
Indianapolis District Office (Detroit Field Office; Cincinnati and Louisville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govDonna E. Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1900, 101 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, IN 46204-42031-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)317-226-7953
Indianapolis District Office (Detroit Field Office; Cincinnati and Louisville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionBeverly Clark (Detroit & Cincinnati)Records Disclosure CoordinatorDETRFOIA@eeoc.govDonna E. Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1900, 101 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, IN 46204-4203313-226-5016317-226-7953
Indianapolis District Office (Detroit Field Office; Cincinnati and Louisville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDonna E. Williams (Indianapolis & Louisville)Records Disclosure CoordinatorINDIFIOA@eeoc.govDonna E. Williams, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1900, 101 West Ohio Street, Indianapolis, IN 46204-4203317-226-7952317-226-7953
Los Angeles District Office (Fresno, Honolulu, Las Vegas, and San Diego Local Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionKenneth Graham, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 4th Floor, 255 E. Temple Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012213-894-1118
Los Angeles District Office (Fresno, Honolulu, Las Vegas, and San Diego Local Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govKenneth Graham, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 4th Floor, 255 E. Temple Street, Los Angeles, CA 900121-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)213-894-1118
Los Angeles District Office (Fresno, Honolulu, Las Vegas, and San Diego Local Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionKenneth GrahamRecords Disclosure CoordinatorLOSAFOIA@eeoc.govKenneth Graham, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 4th Floor, 255 E. Temple Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012213-894-1059213-894-1118
Memphis District Office (Little Rock and Nashville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDelner Franklin-Thomas, Director, Suite 900, 1407 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN 38104901-544-0111
Memphis District Office (Little Rock and Nashville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govDelner Franklin-Thomas, Director, Suite 900, 1407 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN 381041-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)901-544-0111
Memphis District Office (Little Rock and Nashville Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionMark AdamsRecords Disclosure CoordinatorMEMPFOIA@eeoc.govDelner Franklin-Thomas, Director, Suite 900, 1407 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN 38104(901) 544-0020901-544-0111
Miami District Office (Tampa Field Office and San Juan Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFredricka Warren, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1500, 100 SE Street, Miami, FL 33131305-808-1855
Miami District Office (Tampa Field Office and San Juan Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govFredricka Warren, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1500, 100 SE Street, Miami, FL 331311-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)305-808-1855
Miami District Office (Tampa Field Office and San Juan Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFredricka Warren (Miami)Records Disclosure CoordinatorMIAMFOIA@eeoc.govFredricka Warren, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1500, 100 SE Street, Miami, FL 33131786-648-5822305-808-1855
Miami District Office (Tampa Field Office and San Juan Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionKarine Lafontant (Tampa & San Juan)Records Disclosure CoordinatorMIAMFOIA@eeoc.govFredricka Warren, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1500, 100 SE Street, Miami, FL 33131813-202-7923305-808-1855
New York District Office (Boston and Newark Area Offices; Buffalo Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDavid Phillips, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 5th Floor, 33 Whitehall Street, New York, NY 10004212-336-3625
New York District Office (Boston and Newark Area Offices; Buffalo Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govDavid Phillips, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 5th Floor, 33 Whitehall Street, New York, NY 100041-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)212-336-3625
New York District Office (Boston and Newark Area Offices; Buffalo Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionDavid PhillipsRecords Disclosure CoordinatorNEWYFOIA@eeoc.govDavid Phillips, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 5th Floor, 33 Whitehall Street, New York, NY 10004212-336-3653212-336-3625
New York District Office (Boston and Newark Area Offices; Buffalo Local Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionRachel AubryRecords Disclosure CoordinatorNEWYFOIA@eeoc.govDavid Phillips, Records Disclosure Coordinator, 5th Floor, 33 Whitehall Street, New York, NY 10004(212) 336-3673212-336-3625
Office of Legal Counsel/Headquarters (FOIA Programs)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govStephanie D. Garner, Assistant Legal Counsel, FOIA Public Liaison, 131 M Street NE, Suite 5NW02E, Washington, DC 205071-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)202-653-6034
Office of Legal Counsel/Headquarters (FOIA Programs)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionStephanie D. GarnerAssistant Legal Counsel / FOIA Public LiaisonFOIA@eeoc.govStephanie D. Garner, Assistant Legal Counsel, FOIA Public Liaison, 131 M Street NE, Suite 5NW02E, Washington, DC 20507(202) 663-4634202-653-6034
Philadelphia District Office (Baltimore and Cleveland Field Offices; Pittsburgh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCoralie Torres, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1300, 801 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107-3127215-440-2606
Philadelphia District Office (Baltimore and Cleveland Field Offices; Pittsburgh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govCoralie Torres, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1300, 801 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107-31271-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)215-440-2606
Philadelphia District Office (Baltimore and Cleveland Field Offices; Pittsburgh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionCoralie TorresRecords Disclosure CoordinatorPHILFOIA@eeoc.govCoralie Torres, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1300, 801 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107-3127(267) 589-9753215-440-2606
Philadelphia District Office (Baltimore and Cleveland Field Offices; Pittsburgh Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionSang LuRecords Disclosure CoordinatorPHILFOIA@eeoc.govCoralie Torres, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 1300, 801 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107-3127(267) 589-9751215-440-2606
Phoenix District Office (Denver Field Office; Albuquerque Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionSilvia Hart, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 690, 3300 N. Central Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85012-2504602-640-5071
Phoenix District Office (Denver Field Office; Albuquerque Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govSilvia Hart, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 690, 3300 N. Central Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85012-25041-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)602-640-5071
Phoenix District Office (Denver Field Office; Albuquerque Area Office)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionSilvia HartRecords Disclosure CoordinatorPHOENIXFOIA@eeoc.govSilvia Hart, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 690, 3300 N. Central Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85012-2504602-640-5053602-640-5071
San Francisco District Office (Seattle Field Office; Oakland and San Jose Local Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionVincent Clark, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 500, 450 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102-3661415-522-3144
San Francisco District Office (Seattle Field Office; Oakland and San Jose Local Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govVincent Clark, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 500, 450 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102-36611-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)415-522-3144
San Francisco District Office (Seattle Field Office; Oakland and San Jose Local Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionVincent ClarkRecords Disclosure CoordinatorSANFFOIA@eeoc.govVincent Clark, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 500, 450 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94102-3661415-522-3144415-522-3144
Select Equal Employment Opportunity Commission component for meEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionStephanie Garner, Assistant Legal Counsel Office of Legal Counsel FOIA Programs, 131 M Street, NE, Suite 5NW02E, Washington, DC 20507
Select Equal Employment Opportunity Commission component for meEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionStephanie Garner, Assistant Legal Counsel Office of Legal Counsel FOIA Programs, 131 M Street, NE, Suite 5NW02E, Washington, DC 20507(202) 663-4500, (202) 663-7026 (TTY)
St. Louis District Office (Kansas City and Oklahoma Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionChristopher Jenkins, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Room 8100, 1222 Spruce Street, St. Louis, MO 63103314-539-7050
St. Louis District Office (Kansas City and Oklahoma Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govChristopher Jenkins, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Room 8100, 1222 Spruce Street, St. Louis, MO 631031-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 (TTY)314-539-7050
St. Louis District Office (Kansas City and Oklahoma Area Offices)Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionChristopher JenkinsRecords Disclosure CoordinatorSTLOFOIA@eeoc.govChristopher Jenkins, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Room 8100, 1222 Spruce Street, St. Louis, MO 63103(314) 539-7908314-539-7050
Washington Field OfficeEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionTonya Bowens, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 4NE29F, 131 M Street, NE, Washington, DC 20507202-419-0740
Washington Field OfficeEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionFOIA@eeoc.govTonya Bowens, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 4NE29F, 131 M Street, NE, Washington, DC 205071-877-869-1802, 202-663-7026 TTY202-419-0740
Washington Field OfficeEqual Employment Opportunity CommissionTonya BowensRecords Disclosure CoordinatorWASHFOIA@eeoc.govTonya Bowens, Records Disclosure Coordinator, Suite 4NE29F, 131 M Street, NE, Washington, DC 20507202-419-0709202-419-0740
HeadquartersExport-Import Bank of the U.S.Lennell C. Jackson, FOIA Contact, 811 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20571202-565-3290202-565-3294
HeadquartersExport-Import Bank of the U.S.Lennell C. Jacksonlennell.jackson@exim.govLennell C. Jackson, FOIA Contact, 811 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20571202-565-3290202-565-3294
HeadquartersExport-Import Bank of the U.S.Lisa TerryChief FOIA OfficerFOIA@exim.govLennell C. Jackson, FOIA Contact, 811 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20571202-565-3195202-565-3294
Farm Credit AdministrationFarm Credit AdministrationAutumn R AgansFOIA Officeragansa@fca.govAutumn R. Agans, FOIA Officer, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090703-883-4082703-790-0052
Farm Credit AdministrationFarm Credit AdministrationDavid GrahnPublic Liasionfoiapublicliasion@fca.govAutumn R. Agans, FOIA Officer, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090703-790-0052
Farm Credit AdministrationFarm Credit AdministrationVacantAutumn R. Agans, FOIA Officer, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090703-790-0052
Farm Credit System Insurance CorporationFarm Credit System Insurance CorporationChristine D. QuinnAutumn R. Agans, Freedom of Information Officer, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090703-883-4020703-790-0052
Farm Credit System Insurance CorporationFarm Credit System Insurance CorporationVacantAutumn R. Agans, Freedom of Information Officer, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090703-790-0052
Federal Communications CommissionFederal Communications CommissionVanessa Lamb, Acting Associate Managing Director, Room 1-A838, 445 12th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20554202-418-0440
Federal Communications CommissionFederal Communications CommissionStephanie KostVanessa Lamb, Acting Associate Managing Director, Room 1-A838, 445 12th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20554202-418-1379
Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationFOIA Contact, Legal Division, FOIA/PA Group, 550 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20429202-898-7021703-562-2797
Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationHugo ZiaSupervisory Counselhzia@fdic.govFOIA Contact, Legal Division, FOIA/PA Group, 550 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20429703-562-2671703-562-2797
Federal Deposit Insurance CorporationFederal Deposit Insurance CorporationM. Anthony LoweFDIC Ombudsmanmlowe@fdic.govFOIA Contact, Legal Division, FOIA/PA Group, 550 17th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20429703-562-6040703-562-2797
Federal Election CommissionFederal Election CommissionCandace SalleyFOIA Contact, FOIA Requester Service Center, 1050 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20463202-694-1650202-219-1043
Federal Election CommissionFederal Election CommissionChristine McClarinFOIA Public Liaisoncmcclarin@fec.govFOIA Contact, FOIA Requester Service Center, 1050 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20463202-694-1485202-219-1043
Federal Election CommissionFederal Election CommissionGregory BakerChief FOIA OfficerFOIA Contact, FOIA Requester Service Center, 1050 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20463202-694-1650202-219-1043
Federal Energy Regulatory CommissionFederal Energy Regulatory CommissionLeonard Tao, FOIA Officer, 11-H24, 888 First Street NE, Code EA1, Washington, DC 20426202-502-6088202-208-2106
Federal Energy Regulatory CommissionFederal Energy Regulatory CommissionToyia JohnsonLeonard Tao, FOIA Officer, 11-H24, 888 First Street NE, Code EA1, Washington, DC 20426202-502-8389202-208-2106
Federal Financial Institutions Examination CouncilFederal Financial Institutions Examination CouncilJudith E. Dupre, Executive Secretary, B7081a, 3501 Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22226-3550703-516-5591703-562-6446
Federal Financial Institutions Examination CouncilFederal Financial Institutions Examination CouncilRosanna PiccirilliJudith E. Dupre, Executive Secretary, B7081a, 3501 Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22226-3550703-516-5591703-562-6446
HeadquartersFederal Housing Finance AgencyStacy J. Easter, FOIA Officer, Constitution Center, 400 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20024202-649-3803202-649-1073
HeadquartersFederal Housing Finance AgencyStacy J. EasterStacy J. Easter, FOIA Officer, Constitution Center, 400 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20024202-649-3803202-649-1073
Office of Inspector GeneralFederal Housing Finance AgencyColleen KaneAssistant Chief CounselFOIA@fhfaoig.govColleen Kane, Assistant Chief Counsel, Constitution Center, 400 7th Street, SW, Washington, DC 20024202-318-8602
Atlanta Regional OfficeFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA Atlanta Regional Office, FOIA Contact, 225 Peachtree Center Avenue, Suite 1950, Atlanta, GA 30303404-331-5300404-331-5280
Chicago Regional OfficeFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA Chicago Regional Office, FOIA Contact, 224 S. Michigan Avenue, Suite 445, Chicago, IL 60604312-886-3465312-886-5977
Denver Regional OfficeFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA Denver Regional Office, FOIA Contact, 1244 Speer Boulevard, Suite 446, Denver, CO 80204-3581303-844-5226303-844-2774
Office of the General CounselFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA Office of the General Counsel, FOIA Contact, 1400 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20424202-218-7910202-482-6608
Office of the Inspector GeneralFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA Office of the Inspector General, FOIA Contact, 1400 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20424202-218-7770 x7744, 202-218-7970202-208-4535
San Francisco Regional OfficeFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA San Francisco Regional Office, FOIA Contact, 901 Market Street, Suite 470, San Francisco, CA 94103-1791415-356-5000415-356-5017
The AuthorityFederal Labor Relations AuthorityEmily SloopFOIA Public Liaisonesloop@flra.govFLRA Office of the Solicitor, 1400 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20424202-218-7740202-343-1007
The Federal Service Impasses PanelFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFederal Service Impasses Panel, FOIA Contact, 1400 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20424202-218-7790202-482-6674
Washington Regional OfficeFederal Labor Relations AuthorityFLRA WRO of the General Counsel, FOIA Contact, 1400 K Street, NW, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20424-0001202-482-6700202-482-6724
Federal Maritime CommissionFederal Maritime CommissionLinda HaleFOIA@FMC.govSecretary, 800 North Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC 20573202-523-5707202-523-0014
Federal Maritime CommissionFederal Maritime CommissionRachel E. DickonFOIA@FMC.govSecretary, 800 North Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC 20573202-523-5725202-523-0014
Federal Mediation and Conciliation ServiceFederal Mediation and Conciliation ServiceMichael J. Bartlett, Chief FOIA Officer, 250 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20427202-606-5444202-606-5345
Federal Mediation and Conciliation ServiceFederal Mediation and Conciliation ServiceRamona BuckMichael J. Bartlett, Chief FOIA Officer, 250 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20427202-606-3678202-606-5345
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review CommissionFederal Mine Safety and Health Review CommissionStacey Demps-Barrett, Chief FOIA Officer, Suite 520N, 1331 Pennsylvania, NW, Washington, DC 20004-1710202-434-9935202-434-9949
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review CommissionFederal Mine Safety and Health Review CommissionLinda WilesFOIA-liaison@FMSHRC.govStacey Demps-Barrett, Chief FOIA Officer, Suite 520N, 1331 Pennsylvania, NW, Washington, DC 20004-1710202-434-9935202-434-9949
Federal Open Market CommitteeFederal Open Market CommitteeDavid Caperton20th & C Streets, NW, , Washington, DC 20551202-452-2899202-452-2921
Federal Open Market CommitteeFederal Open Market CommitteeFOMC FOIA Service Center20th & C Streets, NW, , Washington, DC 20551202-973-7400202-452-2921
Federal Reserve SystemFederal Reserve SystemFederal Reserve System, 20th & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551202-452-3648202-872-7565
Federal Reserve SystemFederal Reserve SystemCandace AmbroseFederal Reserve System, 20th & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551202-452-3684202-872-7565
Federal Retirement Thrift Investment BoardFederal Retirement Thrift Investment BoardAmanda HaasAmanda Haas, FOIA Officer, 10th Floor, 77 K Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002202-942-1660202-942-1676
Federal Retirement Thrift Investment BoardFederal Retirement Thrift Investment BoardDharmesh VasheeAmanda Haas, FOIA Officer, 10th Floor, 77 K Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002202-639-4424202-942-1676
Federal Trade CommissionFederal Trade CommissionRichard GoldDione Stearns, Assistant General Counsel for Information & Legal Support, 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW H-585, Washington, DC 20580202-326-3355202-326-2477
HeadquartersGeneral Services AdministrationFOIA Contact, FOIA Requester Service Center (H1C), Room 7308, 1800 F. Street, NW, Washington, DC 20405855-675-3642202-501-2727
HeadquartersGeneral Services AdministrationAudrey Corbett BrooksFOIA Contact, FOIA Requester Service Center (H1C), Room 7308, 1800 F. Street, NW, Washington, DC 20405202-205-5912202-501-2727
Office of Inspector GeneralGeneral Services Administration1800 F Street, NW, Room 7308, , Washington, DC 20405(202) 501-0414
Office of Inspector GeneralGeneral Services AdministrationAudrey Corbett BrooksOIGFOIA-PrivacyAct@gsaig.gov1800 F Street, NW, Room 7308, , Washington, DC 20405(202) 501-1932(202) 501-0414
Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration CouncilGulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration CouncilDavid GillilandDeputy Chief Financial OfficerFrederick Sutter, FOIA Officer, Suite 1117, 500 Poydras Street, New Orleans, LA 70130504-444-5044504-304-1473
Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration CouncilGulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration CouncilFrederick SutterFrederick Sutter, FOIA Officer, Suite 1117, 500 Poydras Street, New Orleans, LA 70130504-444-3511504-304-1473
Harry S. Truman Scholarship FoundationHarry S. Truman Scholarship FoundationTara Yglesias, FOIA Officer, 712 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20006202.395.4831202-395-6995
Harry S. Truman Scholarship FoundationHarry S. Truman Scholarship FoundationTara Yglesias, FOIA Officer, 712 Jackson Place, NW, Washington, DC 20006202.395.4831202-395-6995
Institute of Museum and Library ServicesInstitute of Museum and Library ServicesMae RidgesGladstone Payton, Chief FOIA Officer, Suite 4000, 955 L’Enfant Plaza, North, Washington, DC 20024-2135202-653-4642202-653-4600
Institute of Museum and Library ServicesInstitute of Museum and Library ServicesMae RidgesGladstone Payton, Chief FOIA Officer, Suite 4000, 955 L’Enfant Plaza, North, Washington, DC 20024-2135202-653-4642202-653-4600
Inter-American FoundationInter-American FoundationLesley DuncanPaul Zimmerman, General Counsel, 12th Floor North, Suite 1200, 1331 Pennsylvania, NW, Washington, DC 20004202-688-3047
Inter-American FoundationInter-American FoundationPaul ZimmermanGeneral CounselPaul Zimmerman, General Counsel, 12th Floor North, Suite 1200, 1331 Pennsylvania, NW, Washington, DC 20004202-683-7118
James Madison Memorial Fellowship FoundationJames Madison Memorial Fellowship FoundationElizabeth G. RayElizabeth G. Ray, FOIA Officer, 1613 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314571-858-4204703-838-2180
James Madison Memorial Fellowship FoundationJames Madison Memorial Fellowship FoundationElizabeth G. RayElizabeth G. Ray, FOIA Officer, 1613 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314571-858-4204703-838-2180
Office of Inspector GeneralLegal Services CorporationRoxanne CarusoFOIA Public Liaisonrcaruso@oig.lsc.gov3333 K Street NW, , Washington, DC 20007202-295-1582202-337-6616
Office of Legal AffairsLegal Services CorporationHelen Gerostathos GuytonFOIA Public Liaisonguytonh@lsc.gov3333 K Street NW – 3rd Floor, , Washington, DC 20007202-295-1632202-337-6519
Marine Mammal CommissionMarine Mammal CommissionCathy ShresthaMichael Gosliner, FOIA Officer, Suite 700, 4340 East-West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814301-504-0087202-504-0099
Marine Mammal CommissionMarine Mammal CommissionMichael GoslinerMichael Gosliner, FOIA Officer, Suite 700, 4340 East-West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814301-504-0087202-504-0099
HeadquartersMerit Systems Protection BoardD. Fon MuttamaraFOIA Public Liaisonfoiahq@mspb.gov1615 M Street, NW, , Washington, DC 20419202-653-7200202-653-7130
HeadquartersMerit Systems Protection BoardKarin Kelly1615 M Street, NW, , Washington, DC 20419202-254-4475202-653-7130
Millennium Challenge CorporationMillennium Challenge CorporationJohn MantiniTamiko Walker, Chief FOIA Officer, 1099 14th St. NW Ste 700, Washington, DC 20005202-521-3863202-521-3939
Millennium Challenge CorporationMillennium Challenge CorporationUdvaldo LopezTamiko Walker, Chief FOIA Officer, 1099 14th St. NW Ste 700, Washington, DC 20005202-521-3594202-521-3939
Ames Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space Administrationhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, ARC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
Armstrong Flight Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space Administrationhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, AFRC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
Armstrong Flight Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationMartha Terryhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, AFRC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
Glenn Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space Administrationhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, GRC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
Glenn Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationMartha Terryhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, GRC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
Goddard Space Flight CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationJoan Belt, GSFC FOIA Officer, Code 130, Greenbelt, MD 20771301-286-4271301-286-1712
Goddard Space Flight CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationJoan BeltJoan Belt, GSFC FOIA Officer, Code 130, Greenbelt, MD 20771301-286-4271301-286-1712
Goddard Space Flight CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationJoan BeltJoan Belt, GSFC FOIA Officer, Code 130, Greenbelt, MD 20771301-286-4271301-286-1712
HeadquartersNational Aeronautics and Space Administrationhq-foia@nasa.govJosephine Sibley, HQ FOIA Officer, Room 5Q 16, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2462202-358-4332
HeadquartersNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationJosephine SibleyJosephine Sibley, HQ FOIA Officer, Room 5Q 16, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2462202-358-4332
HeadquartersNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationJosephine SibleyJosephine Sibley, HQ FOIA Officer, Room 5Q 16, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2462202-358-4332
Jet Propulsion LaboratoryNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationDennis Mahon, JPL FOIA Officer, M/S: 180-200K, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8001818-393-6779818-393-3160
Jet Propulsion LaboratoryNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationDennis MahonDennis Mahon, JPL FOIA Officer, M/S: 180-200K, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8001818-393-6779818-393-3160
Jet Propulsion LaboratoryNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationDennis MahonDennis Mahon, JPL FOIA Officer, M/S: 180-200K, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8001818-393-6779818-393-3160
Johnson Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Headquarters, MS 5-L19, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546281-483-8252202-358-4332
Johnson Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationRobert Younghq-foia@nasa.govNASA Headquarters, MS 5-L19, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546202-358-1030202-358-4332
Johnson Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationRobert Younghq-foia@nasa.govNASA Headquarters, MS 5-L19, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546202-358-4332
Kennedy Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCarissa Wheeler, MS 151, 9C Langley Blvd., Hampton, VA 23681-2199757-864-4274757-864-6333
Kennedy Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCarissa WheelerCarissa Wheeler, MS 151, 9C Langley Blvd., Hampton, VA 23681-2199757-864-6333
Langley Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCarissa Wheeler, LaRC FOIA Officer, Mail Stop 151, 9C Langley Boulevard, Hampton, VA 23681-2199757-864-4274757-864-6333
Langley Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCarissa WheelerCarissa Wheeler, LaRC FOIA Officer, Mail Stop 151, 9C Langley Boulevard, Hampton, VA 23681-2199757-864-4274757-864-6333
Langley Research CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCarissa WheelerCarissa Wheeler, LaRC FOIA Officer, Mail Stop 151, 9C Langley Boulevard, Hampton, VA 23681-2199757-864-4274757-864-6333
Marshall Space Flight CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Headquarters, MS 5-L19, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546256-544-1837202-358-4332
Marshall Space Flight CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationRobert Younghq-foia@nasa.govNASA Headquarters, MS 5-L19, 300 E Street, SW, Washington, DC 20546202-358-1030202-358-4332
NASA Shared Service Center (NSSC)National Aeronautics and Space Administrationhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, NSSC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
NASA Shared Service Center (NSSC)National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationMartha Terryhq-foia@nasa.govMartha Terry, NSSC FOIA Officer, MS 5-L19, Room 5Q14, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2339202-358-4332
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationFrank LaRocca, OIG FOIA Officer, Room 8V69, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2582202-358-2767
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationFrank LaRoccaFrank LaRocca, OIG FOIA Officer, Room 8V69, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2582202-358-2767
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationFrank LaRoccaFrank LaRocca, OIG FOIA Officer, Room 8V69, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-2582202-358-2767
Principal Agency FOIA OfficerNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNikki N. GramianNASA Headquarters, Room 5P 32, 300 E Street, SW, S.W. Washington, DC 20546202-358-0625202-358-4332
Stennis Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationStennis Space Center (SSC), Building 1100, Room 304D, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529228-688-3182228-668-1094
Stennis Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationSallie BilboStennis Space Center (SSC), Building 1100, Room 304D, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529228-688-3182228-668-1094
Stennis Space CenterNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationSallie BilboStennis Space Center (SSC), Building 1100, Room 304D, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529228-688-3182228-668-1094
George Bush Presidential LibraryNational Archives and Records AdministrationJohn LasterDirector of Presidential Materials Divisionlibraries.foia.liaison@nara.govGeorge Bush Presidential Library and Museum, 1000 George Bush Drive, West College Station, TX 77845202-357-5200979-691-4050
George W. Bush Presidential LibraryNational Archives and Records AdministrationJohn LasterDirector of Presidential Materials Divisionlibraries.foia.liaison@nara.govGeorge W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, 2943 SMU Blvd, Dallas, TX 75205-2300202-357-5200214-346-1699
National Archives at AtlantaNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archvies at Atlanta, 57800 Jonesboro Road, Morrow, GA 30260770-968-2547
National Archives at AtlantaNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archvies at Atlanta, 57800 Jonesboro Road, Morrow, GA 30260770-968-2100770-968-2547
National Archives at AtlantaNational Archives and Records AdministrationRob RichardsSupervisory ArchivistNational Archvies at Atlanta, 57800 Jonesboro Road, Morrow, GA 30260770-968-2547
National Archives at BostonNational Archives and Records AdministrationFrederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Road, Waltham, MA 02452-6399781-663-0154
National Archives at BostonNational Archives and Records AdministrationFrederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Road, Waltham, MA 02452-6399781-663-0130781-663-0154
National Archives at BostonNational Archives and Records AdministrationAlfie PaulSupervisory ArchivistFrederick C. Murphy Federal Center, 380 Trapelo Road, Waltham, MA 02452-6399781-663-0154
National Archives at ChicagoNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Chicago, 7358 South Pulaski Road, Chicago, IL 60629-5898773-948-9050
National Archives at ChicagoNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Chicago, 7358 South Pulaski Road, Chicago, IL 60629-5898773-581-7816773-948-9050
National Archives at ChicagoNational Archives and Records AdministrationDouglas BickneseSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives at Chicago, 7358 South Pulaski Road, Chicago, IL 60629-5898773-948-9050
National Archives at DenverNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives in Denver, 17101 Huron St., Broomfield, CO 80223303-407-5709
National Archives at DenverNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives in Denver, 17101 Huron St., Broomfield, CO 80223303-407-5740303-407-5709
National Archives at DenverNational Archives and Records AdministrationEileen BolgerSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives in Denver, 17101 Huron St., Broomfield, CO 80223303-407-5709
National Archives at Fort WorthNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Ft Worth, 1400 John Burgess Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76140817-551-2034
National Archives at Fort WorthNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Ft Worth, 1400 John Burgess Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76140817-334-5525817-551-2034
National Archives at Fort WorthNational Archives and Records AdministrationMeg HackerSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives at Ft Worth, 1400 John Burgess Drive, Fort Worth, TX 76140817-551-2034
National Archives at Kansas CityNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archvies at Kansas City, 400 West Pershing Road, Kansas City, MO 64108816-268-8038
National Archives at Kansas CityNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archvies at Kansas City, 400 West Pershing Road, Kansas City, MO 64108816-268-8000816-268-8038
National Archives at Kansas CityNational Archives and Records AdministrationLori Cox-PaulSupervisory ArchivistNational Archvies at Kansas City, 400 West Pershing Road, Kansas City, MO 64108816-268-8038
National Archives at New York CityNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at New York, 1 Bowling Green, New York, NY 10004212-401-1638
National Archives at New York CityNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at New York, 1 Bowling Green, New York, NY 10004212-401-1620212-401-1638
National Archives at New York CityNational Archives and Records AdministrationChris GushmanSupersivory ArchivistNational Archives at New York, 1 Bowling Green, New York, NY 10004212-401-1638
National Archives at PhiladelphiaNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Philadelphia, 14700 Townsend Road, Philadelphia, PA 19154-1096215-305-2038
National Archives at PhiladelphiaNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Philadelphia, 14700 Townsend Road, Philadelphia, PA 19154-1096215-305-2044215-305-2038
National Archives at PhiladelphiaNational Archives and Records AdministrationLeslie SimonSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives at Philadelphia, 14700 Townsend Road, Philadelphia, PA 19154-1096215-305-2038
National Archives at RiversideNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Riverside, 23123 Cajalco Road, Perris, CA 92570951-956-2049
National Archives at RiversideNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Riverside, 23123 Cajalco Road, Perris, CA 92570951-956-2000951-956-2049
National Archives at RiversideNational Archives and Records AdministrationGwen GranadosSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives at Riverside, 23123 Cajalco Road, Perris, CA 92570951-956-2049
National Archives at San FranciscoNational Archives and Records AdministrationLeo J. Ryan Memorial Federal Bldg, 100 Commodore Drive, San Bruno, CA 94066-2350650-238-3510
National Archives at San FranciscoNational Archives and Records AdministrationLeo J. Ryan Memorial Federal Bldg, 100 Commodore Drive, San Bruno, CA 94066-2350650-238-3501650-238-3510
National Archives at SeattleNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Seattle, 6125 Sand Point Way, NE, Seattle, WA 98115-7999206-336-5112
National Archives at SeattleNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at Seattle, 6125 Sand Point Way, NE, Seattle, WA 98115-7999206-336-5115206-336-5112
National Archives at SeattleNational Archives and Records AdministrationSue KarrenSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives at Seattle, 6125 Sand Point Way, NE, Seattle, WA 98115-7999206-336-5112
National Archives at St. LouisNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at St. Louis, 1 Archives Drive, St. Louis, MO 63138
National Archives at St. LouisNational Archives and Records AdministrationBryan McGrawNational Archives at St. Louis, 1 Archives Drive, St. Louis, MO 63138773-948-0009
National Archives at St. LouisNational Archives and Records AdministrationTheresa FitzgeraldSupervisory ArchivistNational Archives at St. Louis, 1 Archives Drive, St. Louis, MO 63138
National Personnel Records Center – MilitaryNational Archives and Records AdministrationKevin PrattAssistant Director for Military Recordskevin.pratt@nara.gov1 Archives Drive , , St. Louis, MO 63138-1002(314) 801-0582(314) 801-0605
Office of General CounselNational Archives and Records AdministrationNational Archives at College Park, Office of the General Counsel, Room 3110, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-3642301-837-0293
Office of General CounselNational Archives and Records AdministrationGary M. SternGeneral Counsel, Chief FOIA OfficerNational Archives at College Park, Office of the General Counsel, Room 3110, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-1750301-837-0293
Office of General CounselNational Archives and Records AdministrationJoseph ScanlonNational Archives at College Park, Office of the General Counsel, Room 3110, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-3642301-837-0293
Office of Research Services – Washington, DC AreaNational Archives and Records AdministrationSpecial Access and FOIA Staff (RD-F), Room 5500, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-3190301-837-1864
Office of Research Services – Washington, DC AreaNational Archives and Records AdministrationLynn GoodsellSpecial Access and FOIA Staff (RD-F), Room 5500, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-1864
Office of Research Services – Washington, DC AreaNational Archives and Records AdministrationRebecca CalcagnoSupervisory ArchivistSpecial Access and FOIA Staff (RD-F), Room 5500, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-1864
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Archives and Records AdministrationFOIA Contact, Room 1300, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-3000301-837-3197
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Archives and Records AdministrationJames SpringsInspector Generaljames.springs@nara.govFOIA Contact, Room 1300, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-3197
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Archives and Records AdministrationJohn SimmsFOIA Contact, Room 1300, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-3197301-837-3197
Presidential Materials DivisionNational Archives and Records AdministrationJohn LasterDirector of Presidential Materials Divisionlibraries.foia.liaison@nara.govThe National Archives Building, Room G-7, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001202-357-5200202-357-5941
Ronald Reagan Presidential LibraryNational Archives and Records AdministrationJohn LasterDirector of Presidential Materials Divisionlibraries.foia.liaison@nara.govRonald Reagan Presidential Library & Museum, 40 Presidential Drive, Simi Valley, CA 93065-0699202-357-5200805-577-4074
Select National Archives component for meNational Archives and Records AdministrationGary M. SternGeneral Counsel, Chief FOIA OfficerNational Archives at College Park, Room 3110, 8601 Aldephi Road, College Park, MD 20740301-837-1750(301) 837-0293
Select National Archives component for meNational Archives and Records AdministrationJoseph ScanlonFOIA Office, Office of the General Counselfoia@nara.govNational Archives at College Park, Room 3110, 8601 Aldephi Road, College Park, MD 20740(301) 837-3642(301) 837-0293
William J. Clinton Presidential LibraryNational Archives and Records AdministrationJohn LasterDirector of Presidential Materials Divisionlibraries.foia.liaison@nara.govWilliam J. Clinton Presidential Library & Museum, 1200 President Clinton Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72201202-357-5200501-244-2883
National Capital Planning CommissionNational Capital Planning CommissionDebra L. DicksonAnne R. Schuyler, Chief FOIA Officer, North Lobby, Suite 500, 401 9th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20004202-482-7200202-482-7272
National Commission on Military, National, and Public ServiceNational Commission on Military, National, and Public ServiceNational Commission on Military, National, and Public Service, 2530 Crystal Drive, Suite 1000, Box No. 63, Arlington, VA 22202703-571-3760
National Commission on Military, National, and Public ServiceNational Commission on Military, National, and Public ServiceKatie McSheffreyFOIA Public LiaisonNational Commission on Military, National, and Public Service, 2530 Crystal Drive, Suite 1000, Box No. 63, Arlington, VA 22202703-571-3747
National Council on DisabilityNational Council on DisabilityAmy NicholasAttorney Advisor/FOIA Public Liaisonanicholas@ncd.gov1331 F St. NW. Ste. 850, , Washington, DC 20004202-272-2008
Main OfficeNational Credit Union AdministrationCharles Smith1775 Duke Street, , Alexandria, VA 22314703-518-6540703-518-6569
Main OfficeNational Credit Union AdministrationLinda Dent1775 Duke Street, , Alexandria, VA 22314703-518-6540703-518-6569
Main OfficeNational Credit Union AdministrationRegina MetzFOIA Officer & Senior Staff Attorneyfoia@ncua.gov1775 Duke Street, , Alexandria, VA 22314703-518-6540703-518-6569
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Credit Union AdministrationMarta Erceg, Counsel to the Inspector General / Assistant IG for Investigations, 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314703-518-6350703-518-6349
Office of the Inspector GeneralNational Credit Union AdministrationMarta Erceg, Counsel to the Inspector General / Assistant IG for Investigations, 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314703-518-6350703-518-6349
National Endowment for the ArtsNational Endowment for the ArtsDesiree FlippinsFOIA Officerfoia@arts.gov400 7th Street, SW, ATTN:NEA-OGC/FOIA, Washington, DC 20506(202)682-5418202-682-5572
National Endowment for the ArtsNational Endowment for the ArtsSarah Weingast400 7th Street, SW, ATTN:NEA-OGC/FOIA, Washington, DC 20506202-682-5796202-682-5572
National Endowment for the HumanitiesNational Endowment for the HumanitiesFreedom of Information Act Officer, 400 7th Street SW, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20506202-606-8322
National Endowment for the HumanitiesNational Endowment for the HumanitiesLisette VoyatzisFreedom of Information Act Officer, 400 7th Street SW, 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20506202-606-8322
National Indian Gaming CommissionNational Indian Gaming Commission1849 C Street, NW, MS 1621, , Washington, DC 20240202-632-7003202-632-7066
National Indian Gaming CommissionNational Indian Gaming CommissionJo-Ann Shyloski1849 C Street, NW, MS 1621, , Washington, DC 20240202-632-7003202-632-7066
National Indian Gaming CommissionNational Indian Gaming CommissionTim OsumiChief FOIA Officer1849 C Street, NW, MS 1621, , Washington, DC 20240202-632-7054202-632-7066
National Labor Relations BoardNational Labor Relations BoardNLRB FOIA Branch, 1015 Half Street SE, Ste. 4000, Washington, DC 20570202-273-3840202-273-3642
National Labor Relations BoardNational Labor Relations BoardPatricia A. WethDeputy Assistant General CounselFOIAPublicLiaison@nlrb.govNLRB FOIA Branch, 1015 Half Street SE, Ste. 4000, Washington, DC 20570202-273-0902202-273-3642
National Labor Relations BoardNational Labor Relations BoardSynta E. KeelingFOIA Officersynta.keeling@nlrb.govNLRB FOIA Branch, 1015 Half Street SE, Ste. 4000, Washington, DC 20570202-273-2995202-273-3642
National Mediation BoardNational Mediation BoardJohn GrossAttorney-Advisergross@nmb.govMary L. Johnson, General Counsel, Suite 250E, 1301 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005202-692-5040202-692-5085
National Mediation BoardNational Mediation BoardMaria-Kate DowlingFOIA Public Liasiondowling@nmb.govMary L. Johnson, General Counsel, Suite 250E, 1301 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005202-692-5040202-692-5085
National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK)National Railroad Passenger CorporationRebecca Conner, Manager, Records and Information Management, One Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20001202-906-3740202-906-2004
National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK)National Railroad Passenger CorporationCheryl StultzRebecca Conner, Manager, Records and Information Management, One Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20001202-906-3740202-906-2004
National Science FoundationNational Science FoundationJustin GuzFOIA Public Liasisonfoia@nsf.govFreedom of Information Act Officer, 2415 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 18200, Alexandria, VA 22314703-292-2289703-292-9242
National Science FoundationNational Science FoundationJustin GuzFOIA Public Liasisonfoia@nsf.govFreedom of Information Act Officer, 2415 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 18200, Alexandria, VA 22314703-292-2289703-292-9242
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Office of Inspector GeneralNational Science FoundationOIG FOIA Public Liaisonfoiaoig@nsf.gov2415 Eisenhower Avenue, W16100, Alexandria, VA 22314703-292-7100(703) 292-9159
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An introduction to philosophy

Table of contents

Ethics

Classical ethics

  • Aristotle “Nichomachean Ethics” “On Virtues and Vices”

Christian and Medieval ethics

  • Thomas Aquinas “Summa Theologica”

  • Saint Bonaventure “Commentary on the Sentences”

  • Duns Scotus “Philosophical Writings”

  • William of Ockham “Sum of Logic”

Modern ethics

  • G. E. M. Anscombe “Modern Moral Philosophy”

  • David Gauthier “Morals by Agreement”

  • Alan Gewirth “Reason and Morality”

  • Allan Gibbard “Thinking How to Live”

  • Susan Hurley “Natural Reasons”

  • Christine Korsgaard “The Sources of Normativity”

  • John McDowell “Values and Secondary Qualities”

  • Alasdair MacIntyre “After Virtue”

  • J. L. Mackie “Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong”

  • G. E. Moore “Principia Ethica”

  • Martha Nussbaum “The Fragility of Goodness”

  • Derek Parfit “Reasons and Persons”

  • Derek Parfit “On What Matters”

  • Peter Railton “Facts, Values, and Norms”

  • W. D. Ross “The Right and the Good”

  • Thomas M. Scanlon “What We Owe to Each Other”

  • Samuel Scheffler “The Rejection of Consequentialism”

  • Peter Singer “Practical Ethics”

  • Michael A. Smith “The Moral Problem”

  • Bernard Williams “Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy”

Postmodern ethics

  • Zygmunt Bauman “Postmodern Ethics”

  • Terry Eagleton “The Illusions of Postmodernism”

Bioethics

  • Don Marquis “Why Abortion is Immoral”

  • Paul Ramsey “The Patient as a Person” “Fabricated Man”

  • Judith Jarvis Thomson “A Defense of Abortion”

Meta-ethics (Metaethics)

  • P. F. Strawson “Freedom and Resentment”

Epistemology

  • Laurence Bonjour “The Structure of Empirical Knowledge”

  • Luc Bovens “Bayesian Epistemology”

  • Stanley Cavell “The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy”

  • Roderick Chisholm “Theory of Knowledge”

  • Keith DeRose “The Case for Contextualism”

  • René Descartes “Discourse on the Method”, “Meditations on First Philosophy”

  • Edmund Gettier “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?”

  • Alvin Goldman “Epistemology and Cognition” “What is Justified Belief?”

  • Susan Haack “Evidence and Enquiry”

  • Hilary Kornblith “Knowledge and its Place in Nature”

  • Jonathan Kvanvig “The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding”

  • David K. Lewis “Elusive Knowledge”

  • G. E. Moore “A Defence of Common Sense”

  • Willard van Orman Quine “Epistemology Naturalized”

  • Richard Rorty “Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature”

  • Bertrand Russell “The Problems of Philosophy”

  • Jason Stanley “Knowledge and Practical Interest”

  • Stephen Stich “The Fragmentation of Reason”

  • Peter Unger “Ignorance: A Case for Scepticism”

  • Timothy Williamson “Knowledge and its Limits”

Logic

  • Donald Davidson “Truth and Meaning”

  • Gottlob Frege “Begriffsschrift”

  • Kurt Gödel, “On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems”

  • Saul Kripke, “Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic”

  • Charles Sanders Peirce “How to Make Our Ideas Clear”

  • Alfred Tarski “The Concept of Truth”

Aesthetics

  • Theodor Adorno “Aesthetic Theory”

  • R.G. Collingwood “The Principles of Art”

  • Arthur C. Danto “After the End of Art”

  • Nelson Goodman “Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols”

  • George Santayana “The Sense of Beauty”

Metaphysics

  • Aristotle “Metaphysics”

  • D.M. Armstrong “Universals and Scientific Realism”

  • A. J. Ayer “Language, Truth, and Logic”

  • Rudolf Carnap “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology”

  • David Chalmers “Constructing the World”

  • John Dewey “Experience and Nature”

  • William James “Pragmatism”

  • Immanuel Kant “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals”

  • James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, John Collier “Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized”

  • John McDowell “Mind and World”

  • David Kellogg Lewis “On the Plurality of Worlds”

  • Stephen Mumford “Dispositions”

  • Derek Parfit “Reasons and Persons”

  • Willard Van Orman Quine “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” “On What There Is”

  • Theodore Sider “Writing the Book of the World”

  • Alfred North Whitehead “Process and Reality”

  • Timothy Williamson “Modal Logic as Metaphysics”

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” (a.k.a. The Tractatus)

Philosophy of the mind

  • D. M. Armstrong “A Materialist Theory of the Mind”

  • Peter Carruthers “The Architecture of the Mind”

  • David Chalmers “Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings” “The Character of Consciousness” “The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory”

  • Paul Churchland “Matter and Consciousness: A Contemporary Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind”

  • Andy Clark “Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension”

  • Daniel Dennett “Consciousness Explained”

  • Jaegwon Kim “Philosophy of Mind”

  • Ruth Millikan “Varieties of Meaning”

  • Gilbert Ryle “The Concept of Mind”

History of philosophy

Western civilization

  • Bertrand Russell “A History of Western Philosophy”

Classical philosophy

  • Marcus Aurelius “Meditations””

  • Plato “Symposium” “Parmenides” “Phaedrus”

Christian and Medieval

  • Augustine of Hippo “Confessions” “The City of God”

  • Anselm of Canterbury “Proslogion”

Early modern

  • Sir Francis Bacon “Novum Organum”

  • Jeremy Bentham “An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation”

  • Henri Bergson “Time and Free Will” “Matter and Memory”

  • George Berkeley “Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge”

  • Auguste Comte “Course of Positive Philosophy”

  • René Descartes “Principles of Philosophy” “Passions of the Soul”

  • Desiderius Erasmus “The Praise of Folly”

  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte “Foundations of the Science of Knowledge”

  • Hugo Grotius “De iure belli ac pacis”

  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel “Phenomenology of Spirit” “Science of Logic” “The Philosophy of Right” “The Philosophy of History”

  • Thomas Hobbes “Leviathan”

  • David Hume “A Treatise of Human Nature” “Four Dissertationss” “Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary” “An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding” “An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals”

  • Immanuel Kant “A Critique of Pure Reason” “Critique of Practical Reason” “A Critique of Judgement”

  • Søren Kierkegaard “Either/Or” “Fear and Trembling” “The Concept of Anxiety”

  • Gottfried Leibniz “Discourse on Metaphysics” “New Essays Concerning Human Understanding” “Théodicée” “Monadology”

  • John Locke “Two Treatises of Government” “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”

  • Niccolò Machiavelli “The Prince”

  • Karl Marx “The Communist Manifesto” “Das Kapital”

  • John Stuart Mill “On Liberty “Utilitarianism”

  • John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill “The Subjection of Women”

  • Michel de Montaigne “Essays”

  • Friedrich Nietzsche “Thus Spoke Zarathustra” “Beyond Good and Evil” “On the Genealogy of Morals”

  • Blaise Pascal “Pensées”

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau “Discourse on the Arts and Sciences” “Emile: or, On Education” “The Social Contract”

  • Arthur Schopenhauer “The World as Will and Representation”

  • Henry Sidgwick “The Methods of Ethics”

  • Adam Smith “The Theory of Moral Sentiments” “The Wealth of Nations”

  • Herbert Spencer “System of Synthetic Philosophy”

  • Baruch Spinoza “Ethics” “Tractatus Theologico-Politicus”

  • Max Stirner “The Ego and Its Own”

  • Mary Wollstonecraft “A Vindication of the Rights of Women”

Contemporary

Phenomenology and existentialism
  • Simone de Beauvoir “The Second Sex”

  • Albert Camus “Myth of Sisyphus”

  • Martin Heidegger “Being and Time”

  • Edmund Husserl “Logical Investigations” “Cartesian Meditations” “Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy”

  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty “Phenomenology of Perception”

  • Jean-Paul Sartre, “Being and Nothingness” “Critique of Dialectical Reason”

Hermeneutics and deconstruction
  • Jacques Derrida “Of Grammatology”

  • Hans-Georg Gadamer “Truth and Method”

  • Paul Ricœur “Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation”

Structuralism and post-structuralism
  • Michel Foucault “The Order of Things”

  • Gilles Deleuze “Difference and Repetition”

  • Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari “Capitalism and Schizophrenia”

  • Luce Irigaray “Speculum of the Other Woman”

  • Michel Foucault “Discipline and Punish”

Critical theory and Marxism
  • Theodor Adorno “Negative Dialectics”

  • Louis Althusser “Reading Capital”

  • Alain Badiou “Being and Event”

  • Jürgen Habermas “Theory of Communicative Action”

  • Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno “Dialectic of Enlightenment”

  • Georg Lukacs “History and Class Consciousness”

  • Herbert Marcuse “Reason and Revolution” “Eros and Civilization”

Eastern civilization

Chinese philosophy

  • “The Record of Linji”

  • Han Fei “Han Feizi”

  • Kongzi “Analects” “Five Classics”

  • Laozi “Dao De Jing”

  • Mengzi “Mengzi”

  • Sunzi “Art of War”

  • Zhou Dunyi “The Taiji Tushuo”

  • Zhu Xi “Four Books” “Reflections on Things at Hand”

Indian philosophy

  • “The Upanishads”

  • “The Bhagavad Gita” (“The Song of God”)

  • Aksapada Gautama “Nyaya Sutras”

  • Isvarakrsna “Sankhya Karika”

  • Kanada “Vaisheshika Sutra”

  • Patañjali “Yoga Sutras”

  • Swami Swatamarama “Hatha Yoga Pradipika”

  • Vyasa “Brahma Sutras”

  • Tami “Thiruvalluvar”

Islamic philosophy

  • Al-Ghazali “The Incoherence of the Philosophers”

Japanese philosophy

  • Hakuin Ekaku “Wild Ivy”

  • Honen “One-Sheet Document”

  • Kukai “Attaining Enlightenment in this Very Existence”

  • Zeami Motokiyo “Style and Flower”

  • Miyamoto Musashi “The Book of Five Rings”

  • Shinran “Kyogyoshinsho”

  • Dogen Zenji “Shōbōgenzō”

Philosophy of other disciplines

Education

  • John Dewey “Democracy and Education”

  • Terry Eagleton “The Slow Death of the University”

  • Paulo Freire “Pedagogy of the Oppressed”

  • Martha Nussbaum “Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities”

  • B.F. Skinner “Walden Two”

  • Charles Weingartner and Neil Postman “Teaching as a Subversive Activity”

Religion

  • William Lane Craig “The Kalam Cosmological Argument”

  • J. L. Mackie “The Miracle of Theism”

  • Dewi Zephaniah Phillips “Religion Without Explanation”

  • Alvin Plantinga “God and Other Minds” “Is Belief in God Properly Basic”

  • William Rowe “The Evidential Argument from Evil: A Second Look”

  • J. L. Schellenberg “Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason”

  • Richard Swinburne “The Existence of God”

Science

  • Paul Feyerabend “Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge”

  • Bas C. van Fraassen “The Scientific Image”

  • Nelson Goodman “Fact, Fiction, and Forecast”

  • Thomas Samuel Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”

  • Larry Laudan “The Demise of the Demarcation Problem”

  • David K. Lewis “How to Define Theoretical Terms”

  • Karl Pearson “The Grammar of Science”

  • Karl Popper “The Logic of Scientific Discovery”

  • Hans Reichenbach “The Rise of Scientific Philosophy”

Mathematics

  • Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell “Principia Mathematica”

  • Paul Benacerraf “What Numbers Could not Be” “Mathematical Truth”

  • Paul Benacerraf and Hilary Putnam “Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings”

  • George Boolos “Logic, Logic and Logic”

  • Hartry Field “Science without Numbers: The Defence of Nominalism”

  • Imre Lakatos “Proofs and Refutations”

  • Penelope Maddy “Second Philosophy”

Physics

  • Aristotle “Physics”

  • Michel Bitbol “Mécanique quantique : Une introduction philosophique” “Schrödinger’s Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics”

  • Chris Isham and Jeremy Butterfield “On the Emergence of Time in Quantum Gravity”

  • Tim Lewens “The Meaning of Science: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science”

Computer science

  • Scott Aaronson “Why Philosophers Should Care About Computational Complexity”

  • Judea Pearl “Causality”

  • Ray Turner “The Philosophy of Computer Science” “Computational Artefacts-Towards a Philosophy of Computer Science”

Neuroscience

  • John Bickle “Revisionary Physicalism” “Psychoneural Reduction of the Genuinely Cognitive: Some Accomplished Facts” “Psychoneural Reduction: The New Wave” ” Philosophy and Neuroscience: A Ruthlessly Reductive Account”

  • Patricia Churchland “Brain-Wise : Studies in Neurophilosophy” “Neurophilosophy : Toward a Unified Science of the Mind-Brain”

  • Carl Craver “Explaining the brain : mechanisms and the mosaic unity of neuroscience”

  • Georg Northoff “Philosophy of the Brain: The brain problem”

  • Henrik Walter “Neurophilosophy of Free Will: From Libertarian Illusions to a Concept of Natural Autonomy”

Chemistry

  • Jaap van Brakel “Philosophy of Chemistry”

Biology

  • Daniel C. Dennett “Darwin’s Dangerous Idea”

  • Ruth Garrett Millikan “Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories”

  • Erwin Schrödinger, What is Life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell”

  • Elliott Sober “The Nature of Selection”

Sociology

  • B. F. Skinner “Science and Human Behavior”

Psychology

  • Donald Davidson “The Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme”

  • William James “The Principles of Psychology”

Economics

  • Kenneth Arrow “Social Choice and Individual Values”

  • Ludwig von Mises “The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science”

  • Elizabeth S. Anderson “Value in Ethics and Economics”

Arts and Humanities

  • Bernard Williams “Philosophy as a Humanistic Discipline”

Art

  • Clive Bell “Art”

  • George Dickie “Art and the Aesthetic”

Music

  • Roger Scruton “Music as an Art”

Literature

  • Aristotle “Poetics”

Language

  • J. L. Austin, “A Plea for Excuses” “How To Do Things With Words”

  • Robert Brandom “Making it Explicit”

  • Stanley Cavell “Must We Mean What We Say?”

  • David Chalmers “Two Dimensional Semantics”

  • Cora Diamond “What Nonsense Might Be”

  • Michael Dummett “Frege: Philosophy of Language”

  • Gottlob Frege “On Sense and Reference”

  • H. P. Grice “Logic and Conversation”

  • Saul Kripke “Naming and Necessity”

  • David K. Lewis “General Semantics”

  • Willard Van Orman Quine “Word and Object”

  • Bertrand Russell “On Denoting”

  • John Searle “Speech Acts”

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein “Philosophical Investigations”

History

  • R.G. Collingwood “The Idea of History”

  • Karl Löwith “Meaning in History: The Theological Implications of the Philosophy of History”

Medicine

  • Mario Bunge “Medical Philosophy: Conceptual Issues in Medicine”

  • R. Paul Thompson and Ross E. G. Upshur “Philosophy of Medicines”

Law

  • Ronald Dworkin “Law’s Empire”

  • John Finnis “Natural Law and Natural Rights”

  • Lon L. Fuller “The Morality of Law”

  • H.L.A. Hart “The Concept of Law”

Politics

  • Aristotle “Politics”

  • Isaiah Berlin “Two Concepts of Liberty”

  • Robert Nozick “Anarchy, State, and Utopia”

  • Plato “Republic”

  • Karl Popper “The Open Society and Its Enemies”

  • John Rawls “A Theory of Justice”

  • Michael Sandel “Liberalism and the Limits of Justice”

An introduction to ethics

Table of contents

  • What is ethics?
  • Reading

    What is ethics?

    Ethics is approximately about the questions to do with the nature, content, and application of morality, and so is the study of morality in general.

    Questions of moral language, psychology, phenomonenology, epistemology, and ontology typically fall under metaethics.

    Questions of theoretical content, what makes something right, wrong, good, bad, obligatory, or supererogatory typically fall under normative ethics.

    Questions of conduct related to specific issues in the real world to do with business, professional, social, environmental, bioethics, and personhood typically fall under applied ethics. These can be things like abortion, euthanasia, treatment of non-human animals, marketing, and charity.

    Ethics has been divided traditionally into three areas concerning how we ought to conduct ourselves.

    Meta-ethics (Metaethics)

    Metaethics is occasionally referred to as a “second-order” discipline to make a distinction between itself and areas that are less about questions regarding what morality itself is. Questions about the most plausible metaphysical report of moral facts or the link between moral judgment, motivation, and knowledge are questions can be described as such, and so are metaethical questions. There are several rough divisions that have been created to introduce metaethics adequately. Either of these distinctions should be sufficient for getting a distant sense of what metaethics is.

    Metaethics as the systematic analysis of moral language, psychology, and ontology

    In Andrew Fisher’s Metaethics: An Introduction, an intro book Fisher at one point playfully thought of as “An Introduction to An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics,” we get this:

    Looking at ethics we can see that it involves what people say: moral language. So one strand of metaethics considers what is going on when people talk moral talk. For example, what do people mean when they say something is “wrong”? What links moral language to the world? Can we define moral terms?

    Obviously ethics also involves people, so metaethicists consider and analyse what’s going on in peoples’ minds. For example, when people make moral judgements are they expressing beliefs or expressing desires? What’s the link between making moral judgements and motivation?

    Finally, there are questions about what exists (ontology). Thus meta-ethicists ask questions about whether moral properties are real. What is it for something to be real? Could moral facts exist independently of people? Could moral properties be causal?

    Metaethics, then, is the systematic analysis of:

    (a) moral language; (b) moral psychology; (c) moral ontology. This classification is rough and does not explicitly capture a number of issues that are often discussed in metaethics, such as truth and phenomenology. However, for our purposes we can think of such issues as falling under these broad headings.

    Metaethics as concerned with meaning, metaphysics, epistemology and justification, phenomenology, moral psychology, and objectivity

    In Alex Miller’s Contemporary Metaethics: An Introduction (the book Fisher playfully compared his own introduction to), Miller provides us with perhaps the most succinct description of the three:

    [Metaethics is] concerned with questions about the following:

    (a) Meaning: what is the semantic function of moral discourse? Is the function of moral discourse to state facts, or does it have some other non-fact-stating role? (b) Metaphysics: do moral facts (or properties) exist? If so, what are they like? Are they identical or reducible to natural facts (or properties) or are they irreducible and sui generis? (c) Epistemology and justification: is there such a thing as moral knowledge? How can we know whether our moral judgements are true or false? How can we ever justify our claims to moral knowledge? (d) Phenomenology: how are moral qualities represented in the experience of an agent making a moral judgement? Do they appear to be ‘out there’ in the world? (e) Moral psychology: what can we say about the motivational state of someone making a moral judgement? What sort of connection is there between making a moral judgement and being motivated to act as that judgement prescribes? (f) Objectivity: can moral judgements really be correct or incorrect? Can we work towards finding out the moral truth? Obviously, this list is not intended to be exhaustive, and the various questions are not all independent (for example, a positive answer to (f) looks, on the face of it, to presuppose that the function of moral discourse is to state facts). But it is worth noting that the list is much wider than many philosophers forty or fifty years ago would have thought. For example, one such philosopher writes:

    [Metaethics] is not about what people ought to do. It is about what they are doing when they talk about what they ought to do. (Hudson 1970)

    The idea that metaethics is exclusively about language was no doubt due to the once prevalent idea that philosophy as a whole has no function other than the study of ordinary language and that ‘philosophical problems’ only arise from the application of words out of the contexts in which they are ordinarily used. Fortunately, this ‘ordinary language’ conception of philosophy has long since ceased to hold sway, and the list of metaethical concerns – in metaphysics, epistemology, phenomenology, moral psychology, as well as in semantics and the theory of meaning – bears this out.

    Two small notes that might be made are:

    “Objectivity” is standardly taken to mean mind-independence. Here, it almost seems as if it’s cognitivism that the author is describing, but it’s made clear by the author noting that (f) presupposes facts that when Miller says “correct,” Miller means “objectively true.” This is a somewhat unorthodox usage, but careful reading makes it clear what Miller is trying to say.

    “Moral phenomenology” is often categorized as falling under normative ethics as well, but this has little impact on the veracity of this description of metaethics.

    Applied ethics

    Applied ethics is concerned with what is permissible in particular practices. In Peter Singer’s Practical Ethics, Singer provides some examples of what sorts of things this field might address.

    Practical ethics covers a wide area. We can find ethical ramifications in most of our choices, if we look hard enough. This book does not attempt to cover this whole area. The problems it deals with have been selected on two grounds: their relevance, and the extent to which philosophical reasoning can contribute to a discussion of them.

    I regard an ethical issue as relevant if it is one that any thinking person must face. Some of the issues discussed in this book confront us daily: what are our personal responsibilities towards the poor? Are we justified in treating animals as nothing more than machines- producing flesh for us to eat? Should we be using paper that is not recycled? And why should we bother about acting in accordance with moral principles anyway? Other problems, like abortion and euthanasia, fortunately are not everyday decisions for most of us; but they are issues that can arise at some time in our lives. They are also issues of current concern about which any active participant in our society’s decision-making process needs to reflect.

    ….

    This book is about practical ethics, that is, the application of ethics or morality — I shall use the words interchangeably — to practical issues like the treatment of ethnic minorities, equality for women, the use of animals for food and research, the preservation of the natural environment, abortion, euthanasia, and the obligation of the wealthy to help the poor.

    So what does the application of ethics to practical issues look like?

    We can take a look at two of the issues that Singer brings up — abortion and animal rights — to get a sense of what sort of evidence might be taken into consideration with these matters. Keep in mind that this is written with the intention of providing a sense of how discussions in applied ethics develop rather than a comprehensive survey of views in each topic.

    Abortion

    In Rosalind Hursthouse’s Virtue Theory and Abortion, Hursthouse gives a summary of the discussion on abortion as to do with the struggle between facts about the moral status of the fetus and women’s rights.

    As everyone knows, the morality of abortion is commonly discussed in relation to just two considerations: first, and predominantly, the status of the fetus and whether or not it is the sort of thing that may or may not be innocuously or justifiably killed; and second, and less predominantly (when, that is, the discussion concerns the morality of abortion rather than the question of permissible legislation in a just society), women’s rights.

    Judith Jarvis Thomson, in A Defense of Abortion, Thomson addresses a common version of the former consideration, refuting the slippery slope argument.

    Most opposition to abortion relies on the premise that the fetus is a human being, a person, from the moment of conception. The premise is argued for, but, as I think, not well. Take, for example, the most common argument. We are asked to notice that the development of a human being from conception through birth into childhood is continuous; then it is said that to draw a line, to choose a point in this development and say “before this point the thing is not a person, after this point it is a person” is to make an arbitrary choice, a choice for which in the nature of things no good reason can be given. It is concluded that the fetus is, or anyway that we had better say it is, a person from the moment of conception. But this conclusion does not follow. Similar things might be said about the development of an acorn into an oak trees, and it does not follow that acorns are oak trees, or that we had better say they are. Arguments of this form are sometimes called “slippery slope arguments”–the phrase is perhaps self-explanatory–and it is dismaying that opponents of abortion rely on them so heavily and uncritically.

    Nonetheless, Thomson is willing to grant the premise, addressing instead whether or not we can make the case that abortion is impermissible given that the fetus is, indeed, a person. Thomson thinks that the argument that fetuses have the right to life and that right outweighs the right for the individual carrying the fetus to do as they wish with their body is faulty, but notes a limitation.

    But now let me ask you to imagine this. You wake up in the morning and find yourself back to back in bed with an unconscious violinist. A famous unconscious violinist. He has been found to have a fatal kidney ailment, and the Society of Music Lovers has canvassed all the available medical records and found that you alone have the right blood type to help. They have therefore kidnapped you, and last night the violinist’s circulatory system was plugged into yours, so that your kidneys can be used to extract poisons from his blood as well as your own. The director of the hospital now tells you, “Look, we’re sorry the Society of Music Lovers did this to you–we would never have permitted it if we had known. But still, they did it, and the violinist is now plugged into you. To unplug you would be to kill him. But never mind, it’s only for nine months. By then he will have recovered from his ailment, and can safely be unplugged from you.” Is it morally incumbent on you to accede to this situation? No doubt it would be very nice of you if you did, a great kindness. But do you have to accede to it? What if it were not nine months, but nine years? Or longer still? What if the director of the hospital says. “Tough luck. I agree, but now you’ve got to stay in bed, with the violinist plugged into you, for the rest of your life. Because remember this. All persons have a right to life, and violinists are persons. Granted you have a right to decide what happens in and to your body, but a person’s right to life outweighs your right to decide what happens in and to your body. So you cannot ever be unplugged from him.” I imagine you would regard this as outrageous, which suggests that something really is wrong with that plausible-sounding argument I mentioned a moment ago.

    In this case, of course, you were kidnapped, you didn’t volunteer for the operation that plugged the violinist into your kidneys.

    Thomson goes on to address this limitation and goes back and forth between the issue of the fetus’s and carrier’s rights, but Hursthouse (see above) rejects this framework, noting in more detail that we can suppose that women have a right to abortion in a legal sense and still have to wrestle with whether or not abortion is permissible. On the status of fetuses, Hursthouse claims this too can be bypassed with virtue theory.

    What about the consideration of the status of the fetus-what can virtue theory say about that? One might say that this issue is not in the province of any moral theory; it is a metaphysical question, and an extremely difficult one at that. Must virtue theory then wait upon metaphysics to come up with the answer?

    ….

    But the sort of wisdom that the fully virtuous person has is not supposed to be recondite; it does not call for fancy philosophical sophistication, and it does not depend upon, let alone wait upon, the discoveries of academic philosophers. And this entails the following, rather startling, conclusion: that the status of the fetus-that issue over which so much ink has been spilt-is, according to virtue theory, simply not relevant to the rightness or wrongness of abortion (within, that is, a secular morality).

    Or rather, since that is clearly too radical a conclusion, it is in a sense relevant, but only in the sense that the familiar biological facts are relevant. By “the familiar biological facts” I mean the facts that most human societies are and have been familiar with-that, standardly (but not invariably), pregnancy occurs as the result of sexual intercourse, that it lasts about nine months, during which time the fetus grows and develops, that standardly it terminates in the birth of a living baby, and that this is how we all come to be.

    It is worth noting that Hursthouse’s argument more centrally gives her conception of what virtue ethics ought to look like rather than how we should go about abortion, and so to avoid it clouding her paper, she never takes any stance on whether one should think abortion is or is not permissible.

    Thomson’s argument appears to be rather theory-agnostic whereas Hursthouse is committed to a certain theory of ethics. A third approach is intertheoretical, an example of which can be found in Tomasz Żuradzki’s Meta-Reasoning in Making Moral Decisions under Normative Uncertainty. Here, Żuradzki discusses how we might deal with uncertainty over which theory is correct.

    For example, we have to act in the face of uncertainty about the facts, the consequences of our decisions, the identity of people involved, people’s preferences, moral doctrines, specific moral duties, or the ontological status of some entities (belonging to some ontological class usually has serious implications for moral status). I want to analyze whether these kinds of uncertainties should have practical consequences for actions and whether there are reliable methods of reasoning that deal with the possibility that we understand some crucial moral issues wrong.

    Żuradzki at one point considers the seemingly obvious “My Favorite Theory” approach, but concludes that the approach is problematic.

    Probably the most obvious proposition how to act under normative uncertainty is My Favorite Theory approach. It says that “a morally conscientious agent chooses an option that is permitted by the most credible moral theory”

    ….

    Although this approach looks very intuitive, there are interesting counter-examples.

    Żuradzki also addresses a few different approaches, some of which seem to make abortion impermissible so long as there is uncertainty, but perhaps this gives a good idea of three approaches in applied ethics.

    Animal rights

    In the abortion section, the status of the fetus falls into the background. Thomson says even given a certain status, the case against abortion must do more, Hursthouse says the metaphysical question can be bypassed altogether, and Żuradzki considers how to take multiple theories about an action into account. But it seems this strategy of moving beyond the status of the patient in question cannot be done when it comes to the question of how we ought to treat non-human animals, for there’s no obvious competing right that might give us pause when we decide not to treat a non-human animal cruelly. In dealing with animal rights, then, it appears we are forced to address the status of the non-human animal, and there seem to be many ways to address this.

    In Tom Regan’s The Case for Animal Rights, Regan, who agrees with Kant that those who are worthy of moral consideration are ends-in-themselves, thinks what grounds that worthiness in humans is also what grounds that in non-human animals.

    We want and prefer things, believe and feel things, recall and expect things. And all these dimensions of our life, including our pleasure and pain, our enjoyment and suffering, our satisfaction and frustration, our continued existence or our untimely death – all make a difference to the quality of our life as lived, as experienced, by us as individuals. As the same is true of those animals that concern us (the ones that are eaten and trapped, for example), they too must be viewed as the experiencing subjects of a life, with inherent value of their own.

    Christine Korsgaard, who also agrees with a Kantian view, argues against Regan’s view and thinks non-human animals are not like humans. In Fellow Creatures: Kantian Ethics and Our Duties to Animals, Korsgaard makes the case that humans are rational in a sense that non-human animals are not, and that rationality is what grounds our moral obligations.

    an animal who acts from instinct is conscious of the object of its fear or desire, and conscious of it as fearful or desirable, and so as to-be-avoided or to-be-sought. That is the ground of its action. But a rational animal is, in addition, conscious that she fears or desires the object, and that she is inclined to act in a certain way as a result.

    ….

    We cannot expect the other animals to regulate their conduct in accordance with an assessment of their principles, because they are not conscious of their principles. They therefore have no moral obligations.

    Korsgaard, however, still thinks this difference that makes the sense in which humans and non-human animals should be considered fundamentally distinct still leaves room for animals to be worthy of moral consideration.

    Because we are animals, we have a natural good in this sense, and it is to this that our incentives are directed. Our natural good, like the other forms of natural good which I have just described, is not, in and of itself, normative. But it is on our natural good, in this sense, that we confer normative value when we value ourselves as ends-in-ourselves. It is therefore our animal nature, not just our autonomous nature, that we take to be an end-in-itself.

    ….

    In taking ourselves to be ends-in-ourselves we legislate that the natural good of a creature who matters to itself is the source of normative claims. Animal nature is an end-in-itself, because our own legislation makes it so. And that is why we have duties to the other animals.

    So Regan thinks that we can elevate the status of non-human animals up to something like the status of humans, but Korsgaard thinks there is a vast difference between the two categories. Before we consider which view is more credible, we should consider an additional, non-Kantian view which seems to bypass the issue of status once more.

    Rosalind Hursthouse (again!), in Applying Virtue Ethics to Our Treatment of the Other Animals, argues that status need not be relevant for roughly the same reasons as the case of abortion.

    In the abortion debate, the question that almost everyone began with was “What is the moral status of the fetus?”

    ….

    The consequentialist and deontological approaches to the rights and wrongs of the ways we treat the other animals (and also the environment) are structured in exactly the same way. Here too, the question that must be answered first is “What is the moral status of the other animals…?” And here too, virtue ethicists have no need to answer the question.

    So Hursthouse once again reframes the argument and grounds her argument in terms of virtue.

    So I take the leaves on which [Singer describes factory farming] and think about them in terms of, for example, compassion, temperance, callousness, cruelty, greed, self-indulgence—and honesty.

    Can I, in all honesty, deny the ongoing existence of this suffering? No, I can’t. I know perfectly well that althrough there have been some improvements in the regulation of factory farming, what is going on is still terrible. Can I think it is anything but callous to shrug this off and say it doesn’t matter? No, I can’t. Can I deny that the practices are cruel? No, I can’t.

    ….

    The practices that bring cheap meat to our tables are cruel, so we shouldn’t be party to them.

    Żuradzki’s argument in Meta-Reasoning in Making Moral Decisions under Normative Uncertainty becomes relevant once more as well. In it, he argues that if between the competing theories, one says something is wrong and one says nothing of the matter, it would be rational to act as if it were wrong.

    Comparativism in its weak form can be applied only to very specific kinds of situations in which an agent’s credences are not divided between two different moral doctrines, but between only one moral doctrine and some doctrine (or doctrines) that does not give any moral reasons. Its conclusion says that if some theories in which you have credence give you subjective reason to choose action A over action B, and no theories in which you have credence give you subjective reason to choose action B over action A, then you should (because of the requirements of rationality) choose A over B.

    Once again, we see a variety of approaches that help give us a sense of the type of strategies that applied ethicists might use. Here, we have arguments that accept and reject a central premise of the debate, an argument that bypasses it, and an argument that considers both views. Some approaches are theory-specific, some are intertheoretical, and while it was not discussed here, Singer’s argument from marginal cases is theory-neutral.

    Other issues will differ wildly, they will rely on different central premises, have arguments such that intertheoretical approaches are impossible, or have any number of other variations on the similarities and differences between the discussions on the two topics just discussed. However, this gives some idea, hopefully enough to build on if one chooses to look deeper into the literature, of how discussions in the area of applied ethics go about.

    Normative ethics

    Normative ethics deals very directly with the question of conduct. Much of the discipline is dedicated to discovering ethical theories capable of describing what we ought to do. But what does ought mean? In different contexts, while ought tends to deal with normativity and value, it does not always deal with ethics. The oughts that link aesthetics and normativity are not obviously the same as the oughts that we’re dealing with here. The questions of what oughts exist in normative ethics have a great deal to do with concepts like what is “permissible” or “impermissible,” what is “right” or “wrong,” or what is “good” and “bad.” It should be contrasted with how people do act, as well as the moral code of some person or group. These are not what normative ethics is about, but rather what genuinely is correct when it comes to how we ought to live our lives. For now, we can roughly divide the main theories of this area into three categories, though these are not the only categories: consequentialism, deontology, and virtue theory. As noted, there are other theories, and there are even other problems in normative ethics as well, but these three types of theories will be detailed below as well as what we should take from an understanding of the three categories.

    Ethics as grounded in outcomes: Consequentialism

    Consequentialism is a family of theories that are centrally concerned with consequences. Consequentialism, in ordinary practice, is used to refer to theories rooted in classical utilitarianism (even when the theory is not utilitarianism itself), ignoring certain theories that also seem grounded solely in consequences such as egoism. The aforementioned classical utilitarianism that serves as the historical and conceptual root of this discussion entailed a great deal of claims, laid out in Shelly Kagan’s Normative Ethics:

    that goodness of outcomes is the only morally relevant factor in determining the status of a given act. the agent is morally required to perform the act with the best consequences. It is not sufficient that an act have “pretty good” consequences, that it produce more good than harm, or that it be better than average. Rather, the agent is required to perform the act with the very best outcome (compared to alternatives); she is required to perform the optimal act, as it is sometimes called. the agent is morally required to performed the act with the best consequences. The optimal act is the only act that is morally permissible; no other act is morally right. Thus the consequentialist is not making the considerably more modest claim that performing the act with the best consequences is—although generally not obligatory—the nicest or the most praiseworthy thing to do. Rather, performing the optimal act is morally required: anything else is morally forbidden. the right act is the act that leads to the greatest total amount of happiness overall. the consequences [are evaluated] in terms of how they affect everyone’s well-being…

    And of course, these can be divided even further, but what’s salient is there appear to be a great many more claims entailed in this classical form of utilitarianism than one might think first glance: classical utilitarianism is an agent-neutral theory in which acts that actually result in the optimal amount of happiness for everyone is obligatory. By understanding all of these points, we can understand how consequentialism differs from this classical utilitarianism and thus what it means to be consequentialist.

    The limits of contemporary consequentialism

    Many of these claims don’t seem necessary to the label “consequentialism” and give us an unnecessarily narrow sense of what the word could mean.

    It seems desirable to want to broaden the scope of the term then, and in fact, this hasn’t only been done simply to help understand consequentialism, but to defend against criticisms of consequentialism. In Campbell Brown’s Consequentialize This, we get a brief description of one motivation behind radical consequentializing:

    You—a nonconsequentialist, let’s assume—begin with your favorite counterexample. You describe some action…[that] would clearly have the best consequences, yet equally clearly would be greatly immoral. So consequentialism is false, you conclude; sometimes a person ought not to do what would have best consequences. “Not so fast,” comes the consequentialist’s reply. “Your story presupposes a certain account of what makes consequences better or worse, a certain ‘theory of the good,’ as we consequentialists like to say. Consequentialism, however, is not wedded to any such theory…In order to reconcile consequentialism with the view that this action you’ve described is wrong, we need only to find an appropriate theory of the good, one according to which the consequences of this action would not be best. You say you’re concerned about the guy’s rights? No worries; we’ll just build that into your theory of the good. Then you can be a consequentialist too.”

    So, Brown says, this is what has just occurred:

    Instead of showing that your nonconsequentialism is mistaken, the consequentialist shows that it’s not really nonconsequentialism; instead of refuting your view, she ‘consequentializes’ it. If you can’t beat ’em, join ’em. Better still, make ’em join you.

    Is this a good strategy? Brown thinks not, for it weakens the consequentialist’s claim.

    It might succeed in immunizing consequentialism against counterexamples only at the cost of severely weakening it, perhaps to the point of utter triviality. So effortlessly is the strategy deployed that some are led to speculate that it is without theoretical limits: every moral view may be dressed up in consequentialist clothing…But then, it seems, consequentialism would be empty—trivial, vacuous, without substantive content, a mere tautology. The statement that an action is right if and only if (iff) it maximizes the good would entail nothing more substantive than the statement that an action is right iff it is right; true perhaps, but not of much use.

    So not too broad, not too narrow, and not too shifty. We want some sort of solid and only sufficiently broad meaning to jump from. Brown goes on to define what he thinks consequentialism minimally is and three limits must be placed upon it.

    whatever is meant by ‘consequentialism’, it must be intelligible as an elaboration of the familiar consequentialist slogan “Maximize the good.” The non-negotiable core of consequentialism, I shall assume, is the claim that an action is right, or permissible, iff it maximizes the good. My strategy is to decompose consequentialism into three conditions, which I call ‘agent neutrality’, ‘no moral dilemmas’, and ‘dominance’ As usually defined, a theory is agent-relative iff it gives different aims to different agents; otherwise it’s agent-neutral. By a moral dilemma, I mean a situation in which a person cannot avoid acting wrongly…Consider, for example, a theory which holds that violations of rights are absolutely morally forbidden; it is always wrong in any possible situation to violate a right. Suppose, further, that the catalog of rights endorsed by this theory is such that sometimes a person cannot help but violate at least one right. Then this theory cannot be represented by a rightness function which satisfies NMD, and so it cannot be consequentialized. [Dominance] may be the least intuitive of the three. It requires the following. Suppose that in a given choice situation, two worlds x and y are among the alternatives. And suppose in this situation, x is right and y wrong. Then x dominates y in the following sense: y cannot be right in any situation where x is an alternative; the presence of x is always sufficient to make y wrong.

    And there we have it, a definition of consequentialism. Not only that, but this definition is formalized in the paper as well. Can we safely say, then, that this is the definition of consequentialism? The most comprehensive, elucidating, uncontroversial in the field? Certainly not! In fact, it leaves out several significant forms of consequentialism, but this formulation of consequentialism captures many concepts important consequentialism, sufficient for further discussion over the three families. This disagreement over the definition might bring a new set of worries to the mind of any reader. The problem of disagreement will be discussed in another section.

    Ethics as grounded in moral law: Deontology

    Deontology is another family of theories whose definition can wiggle through our grasp (there’s a pattern here to recognize that will become important in a later section). Once more, Shelly Kagan’s Normative Ethics offers us a definition of deontology as it is used in contemporary discourse: a theory that places value on additional factors that would forbid certain actions independently of whether or not they result in the best outcomes.

    In defining deontology, I have appealed to the concept of a constraint: deontologists, unlike consequentialists, believe in the existence of constraints, which erect moral barriers to the promotion of the good…it won’t quite do to label as deontologists all those who accept additional normative factors, beyond that of goodness of results: we must add further stipulation that in at least some cases the effect of these additional factors is to make certain acts morally forbidden, even though these acts may lead to the best possible results overall. In short, we must say that deontologists are those who believe in additional normative factors that generate constraints.

    Kagan goes on to explain why of the various definitions, this one is best. That explanation will not be detailed here, but let’s keep this tenuously in mind as we dive into one of the deontological theories to give us a sense of what deontology entails. It would be absurd if these constraints were arbitrary, nothing more than consequentialism combined with “also, don’t do these specific things because they seem icky and I don’t like them,” so we will take a look at one of the prominent deontological theories: Kantianism.

    Kant’s First Formula

    In Julia Driver’s Ethics: The Fundamentals, Driver introduces us to deontology through Kant’s moral theory, saying this of the theory:

    Immanuel Kant’s theory is perhaps the most well-known exemplar of the deontological approach…whether or not a contemplated course of action is morally permissible will depend on whether or not it conforms to what he terms the moral law, the categorical imperative.

    There’s a tone here that seems noticeably different from consequentialist talk. Permissibility as conforming to moral law could still be consequentialist if that law is something like “maximize the good,” but this description seems to indicate something else. To figure this out, we need an explanation of what “the categorical imperative” means. In Christine Korsgaard’s Creating the Kingdom of Ends:

    Hypothetical imperatives [are] principles which instruct us to do certain actions if we want certain ends…

    ….

    Willing something is determining yourself to be the cause of that thing, which means determining yourself to use the available causal connections — the means — to it. “Willing the end” is already posited as the hypothesis, and we need only analyze it to arrive at willing the means. If you will to be able to play the piano, then you already will to practice, as that is the “indispensably necessary means to it” that “lie in your power.” But the moral ought is not expressed by a hypothetical imperative. Our duties hold for us regardless of what we want. A moral rule does not say “do this if you want that” but simply “do this.” It is expressed in a categorical imperative. For instance, the moral law says that you must respect the rights of others. Nothing is already posited, which can then be analyzed.

    We now have a fairly detailed description of what the distinction between a hypothetical and categorical imperative is, with fine examples to boot. Note that already, it’s clear this theory can’t be consequentialized according to Brown, but we must go further to remove any doubt as a result of controversy over Brown’s formulation. Korsgaard goes on to explain what is necessarily entailed as a part of the categorical imperative in her description of Kant’s first formula.

    If we remove all purposes — all material — from the will, what is left is the formal principle of the will. The formal principle of duty is just that it is duty — that it is law. The essentially character of law is universality. Therefore, the person who acts from duty attends to the universality of his/her principle. He or she only acts on a maxim that he or she could will to be universal law (G 402).

    ….

    But how can you tell whether you are able to will your maxim as a universal law? On Kant’s view, it is a matter of what you can will without contradiction…you envision trying to will your maxim in a world in which the maxim is universalized — in which it is a law of nature. You are to “Ask yourself whether, if the action which you propose should take place by a law of nature of which you yourself were a part, you could regard it as possible through your will” (C2 69)

    Already, upon encountering this first formulation of the categorical imperative, we have now well established that any limit on consequentialization would leave Kant’s moral theory able to resist it. For one, the rightness or wrongness of actions is conforming to moral law such that the outcomes are no longer centrally a point of consideration. This does not mean we have deprived ethics of consequences, as Kagan points out in Normative Ethics:

    [the goodness of outcomes]

    is a factor I think virtually everyone recognizes as morally relevant. It may not be the only factor that is important for determining the moral status of an act, but it is certainly one relevant factor.

    Kantianism is notwithstanding deciding the status of actions not on the sole basis of outcomes. As well, it fails Brown’s dominance formulation.

    The two other formulas are not within the scope of this section, nor is evidence for Kant’s theory. The purpose of detailing Kantianism at all was to demonstrate deontology as conforming to moral law in a manner distinct from consequentialism. As well, it is sufficient to remind ourselves that there is a massive amount of evidence for each of these types of theories without having to detail it in this section for this theory in particular. As well, there are other types of deontological theories, also with a great deal of evidence. Scanlon’s moral theory and Ross’s moral theory are other prominent examples of deontology.

    We are now left with a fairly strong sense of what deontological theories look like. There is some imprecision in that sense, this will be discussed in another section. For now, we must move on to address virtue ethics.

    Ethics as grounded in character: Virtue Ethics

    Virtue ethics, the final family of theories described in the section on normative ethics, is predictably concerned primarily with virtue and practical intelligence.

    Virtue

    A virtue is described as lasting, reliable, and characteristic in Julia Annas’s Intelligent Virtue:

    A virtue is a lasting feature of a person, a tendency for the person to be a certain way. It is not merely a lasting feature, however, one that just sits there undisturbed. It is active: to have it is to be disposed to act in certain ways. And it develops through selective response to circumstances. Given these points, I shall use the term persisting rather than merely lasting. Jane’s generosity, supposing her to be generous, persists through challenges and difficulties, and is strengthened or weakened by her generous or ungenerous responses respectively. Thus, although it is natural for us to think of a virtue as a disposition, we should be careful not to confuse this with the scientific notion of disposition, which just is a static lasting tendency…

    ….

    A virtue is also a reliable disposition. If Jane is generous, it is no accident that she does the generous action and has generous feelings. We would have been surprised, and shocked, if she had failed to act generously, and looked for some kind of explanation. Our friends’ virtues and vices enable us to rely on their responses and behaviour—to a certain extent, of course, since none of us is virtuous enough to be completely reliable in virtuous response and action.

    ….

    Further, a virtue is a disposition which is characteristic—that is, the virtuous (or vicious) person is acting in and from character when acting in a kindly, brave or restrained way. This is another way of putting the point that a virtue is a deep feature of the person. A virtue is a disposition which is central to the person, to whom he or she is, a way we standardly think of character. I might discover that I have an unsuspected talent for Sudoku, but this, although it enlarges my talents, does not alter my character. But someone who discovers in himself an unsuspected capacity to feel and act on compassion, and who develops this capacity, does come to change as a person, not just in some isolated feature; he comes to have a changed character.

    Virtue ethics, then, is centered around something that is roughly this concept. Note that any plausible theory is going to incorporate all of the concepts we’ve gone over on normative ethics. We can go back to Kagan’s Normative Ethics from above, where he notes the relevancy of consequences in every theory.

    all plausible theories agree that goodness of consequences is at least one factor relevant to the moral status of acts. (No plausible theory would hold, for example, that it was irrelevant whether an act would lead to disaster!)

    Similarly, other theories will have an account of virtue, as Jason Kawall’s In Defense of the Primacy of the Virtues briefly describes:

    Consequentialists will treat the virtues as character traits that serve to maximize (or produce sufficient quantities of) the good, where the good is taken as explanatorily basic. Deontologists will understand the virtues in terms of dispositions to respect and act in accordance with moral rules, or to perform morally right actions, where these moral rules or right actions are fundamental. Furthermore, the virtues will be considered valuable just insofar as they involve such tendencies to maximize the good or to perform right actions.

    So it is important to stress then that virtue is the central concept for virtue ethics, and is no more simply a theory that makes relevant an account of virtue any more than consequentialism is any theory that makes relevant an account of consequences. One way we can come to understand virtue ethics better is by understanding a specific kind of virtue ethics, theories which satisfying four conditions laid out by Kawall:

    (i) The concepts of rightness and goodness would be explained in terms of virtue concepts (or the concept of a virtuous agent).

    (ii) Rightness and goodness would be explained in terms of the virtues or virtuous agents.

    (iii) The explanatory primacy of the virtues or virtuous agents (and virtue concepts) would reflect a metaphysical dependence of rightness and goodness upon the virtues or virtuous agents.

    (iv) The virtues or virtuous agents themselves – as well as their value – could (but need not) be explained in terms of further states, such as health, eudaimonia, etc., but where these further states do not require an appeal to rightness or goodness.

    It should be emphasized again that this describes only some theories in this family, but they are good theories to focus on because much of the discussion around these theories would be representative of discussion around virtue ethics in general.

    It is worth stressing that not all theories that could plausibly be understood as forms of virtue ethics would satisfy the above conditions; the current goal is not to defend all possible virtue ethics. Rather, we are examining what might be taken to be among the more radical possible forms of virtue ethics, particularly in treating the virtues as explanatorily prior both to rightness and to goodness tout court. Why focus on these more radical forms? First, several prominent virtue ethics can be understood as satisfying the above conditions, including those of Michael Slote, Linda Zagzebski, and, perhaps (if controversially), Aristotle’s paradigmatic virtue ethics. Beyond this, many of the arguments presented here could be taken on board by those defending more moderate forms of virtue ethics, such as Rosalind Hursthouse or Christine Swanton (against those who would attempt to argue for the explanatory primacy of the right or of the good, for example). Thus the range of interest for most of these arguments will extend beyond those focusing on the more radical approaches.

    Practical intelligence

    Practical intelligence can be described much more briefly to get a sense of its meaning across. In Rosalind Hursthouse’s Applying Virtue Ethics to Our Treatment of the Other Animals, we get a brief description of the role of practical intelligence.

    Of course, applying the virtue and vice terms correctly may be difficult; one may need much practical wisdom to determine whether, in a particular case, telling a hurtful truth is cruel or not, for example…

    Julia Annas elaborates to greater detail in “Intelligent Virtue”:

    The way our characters develop is to some extent a matter of natural endowment; some of us have traits ‘by nature’—we will tend to act bravely or generously without having to learn to do so, or to think about it. This is ‘natural virtue’, which we have already encountered. Different people will have different natural virtues, and one person may be naturally endowed in one area of life but not others—naturally brave, for example, but not naturally generous. However, claims Aristotle, this can’t be the whole story about virtue. For one thing, children and animals can have some of these traits, but in them they are not virtues. Further, these natural traits are harmful if not guided by ‘the intellect’, which in this context is specified as practical wisdom or practical intelligence (phronesis). Just as a powerfully built person will stumble and fall if he cannot see, so a natural tendency to bravery can stumble unseeingly into ethical disaster because the person has not learned to look out for crucial factors in the situation. Our natural practical traits need to be formed and educated in an intelligent way for them to develop as virtues; a natural trait may just proceed blindly on where virtue would respond selectively and in a way open to novel information and contexts.

    Ethics as maximizing happiness: Utilitarianism

    In the famous Trolley problem philosopher Philippa Foot introduced in the 1960s, you have the ability to pull a lever to divert a train from running over five tied-up people lying on the tracks. If you pull the lever, the trolley will be redirected onto a side track, and the five people on the main track will be saved. However, there is a single person lying on the side track.

    According to classical utilitarianism, pulling the lever would be permissible and more moral. English philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill introduced utilitarianism as the sole moral obligation to maximize happiness. As an alternative to divine, religious theories of ethics. Utilitarianism suffers from the idea of “utility monsters,” individuals who would have much more happiness (and therefore utility) than average. This would cause actions to skew towards and exploit maximizing the monster’s happiness in such a way that others would suffer. Since philosopher Robert Nozick introduced the “utility monster” idea in 1974, it has been discussed in politics as driving the ideas of special interest groups and free speech – as though securing these interests would serve the interests of the few experiencing much more happiness than the general population.

    Are these taxonomic imperfections bad? How do we get over vague definitions?

    It might be tempting to read all of this and think there’s some sort of difficulty in discussing normative ethics. In general, academic discourse does not hinge on definitions, and so definitions are not a very large concern. And yet, it might appear upon reading this that ethics is some sort of exception. When philosophers talk about adaptationism in evolution or causation in metaphysics, the definitions they provide seem a lot more precise, so why is ethics an exception?

    The answer is uninterestingly that ethics is not an exception. It is important to avoid confusing what has been read here as some sort of fundamental ambiguity in these theories. Consider Brown’s motive for resisting consequentialization as a response to Dreir’s motive for consequentialization.

    I’ll close by drawing out another moral of my conclusion, related to something Dreier says. Dreier’s motivation for consequentializing is that he wants to overcome a certain “stigma” which he says afflicts defenders of “common sense morality” when they try to deny consequentialism. To deny consequentialism, he says, they must claim that we are sometimes required to do less good than we might, but that claim has a “paradoxical air.” So defenders of commonsense morality, who deny consequentialism, are stigmatized as having a seemingly paradoxical position.

    ….

    Dreier thinks the way to avoid the stigma is to avoid denying consequentialism. If we consequentialize commonsense morality, then defenders of commonsense morality need not deny consequentialism. If I’m right, however, this way of avoiding the stigma doesn’t work…

    Note that this is entirely orthogonal to the plausibility of any particular theory. Whatever stigmas exist makes no difference on whether or not some particular theory happens to be correct. It may prove useful to helping beginners gain a sense of what they’re talking about, but beyond pedagogical utility, it’s disputed that this distinction actually tells us, at a very fundamental level, what these theories are all about.

    In Michael Ridge’s Reasons for Action: Agent-Neutral vs. Agent-Relative, Ridge points out one of the alternative distinctions that might have a more prominent role in describing what fundamentally distinguishes these theories.

    The agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction is widely and rightly regarded as a philosophically important one.

    ….

    The distinction has played a very useful role in framing certain interesting and important debates in normative philosophy.

    For a start, the distinction helps frame a challenge to the traditional assumption that what separates so-called consequentialists and deontologists is that the former but not the latter are committed to the idea that all reasons for action are teleological. A deontological restriction forbids a certain sort of action (e.g., stealing) even when stealing here is the only way to prevent even more stealing in the long run. Consequentialists charge that such a restriction must be irrational, on the grounds that if stealing is forbidden then it must be bad but if it is bad then surely less stealing is better than more. The deontologist can respond in one of two ways. First, they could hold that deontological restrictions correspond to non-teleological reasons. The reason not to steal, on this account, is not that stealing is bad in the sense that it should be minimized but rather simply that stealing is forbidden no matter what the consequences (this is admittedly a stark form of deontology, but there are less stern versions as well). This is indeed one way of understanding the divide between consequentialists and deontologists, but the agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction, and in particular the idea of agent-relative reasons, brings to the fore an alternative conception. For arguably, we could instead understand deontological restrictions as corresponding to a species of reasons which are teleological after all so long as those reasons are agent-relative. If my reason not to steal is that I should minimize my stealing then the fact that my stealing here would prevent five other people from committing similar acts of theft does nothing to suggest that I ought to steal.

    ….

    If Dreier is right [that in effect we can consequentialize deontology] then the agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction may be more important than the distinction between consequentialist theories and non-consequentialist theories.

    The section goes on to detail several ways we can look at this issue so we can understand the importance of this distinction and what it can tell us about the structure and plausibility of certain theories. So while the typical division between consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical theories can be superficially valuable to those getting into ethics, it is important to not overstate the significance of these families and their implications.

    Reading

    Normative ethics

    Includes a minimal definition of normative ethics as a whole.

    In this entry, Ridge lays out another way of categorizing theories in normative ethics in an accessible manner.

    Issues in normative ethics

    • Christopher Heathwood Welfare. 2010.
    • Roger Crisp Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Well-being. 2017.
    • Michael Zimmerman Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Value. 2014.
    • Dana Nelkin Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Moral Luck. 2013.
    • Stephen Stich, John Doris, and Erica Roedder Altruism. 2008.
    • Robert Shaver Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Egoism. 2014.
    • Joshua May Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Psychological Egoism. 2011.

    Consequentialism

    About the best introduction that one can find to one of the consequentialist theories: utilitarianism.

    An introduction to the debate over utilitarianism.

    An influential work that lays out a decent strategy for keeping consequentialist theories of ethics distinct from other theories.

    • Walter Sinnott-Armstrong’s Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Consequentialism. 2015. A
    • William Haines Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Consequentialism. 2006.
    • Chapter 3 and 4 of Driver (see above). 2006.

    Deontology

    A good introduction to and strong defense of Kantianism.

    Rawls’s revolutionary work in both ethics and political philosophy in which he describes justice as fairness, a view he would continue to develop later on.

    A significant improvement and defense of one of the most influential deontological alternatives to Kantianism: Rossian deontology.

    Scanlon, one of the most notable contributors to political and ethical philosophy among his contemporaries, provides an updated and comprehensive account of his formulation of contractualism.

    • Larry Alexander and Michael Moore Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Deontological Ethics. 2016.
    • Chapter 5 and 6 of Driver (see above). 2006.

    Virtue ethics

    Hursthouse’s groundbreaking and accessible work on virtue theory.

    Meta-ethics (Metaethics)

    This is probably a more difficult read than the others, but it is incredibly comprehensive and helpful. There are many things in this handbook that I’ve been reading about for a long time that I didn’t feel confident about until reading this. Certainly worth the cost.

    Moral judgement

    A must read for those who want to engage with issues in moral judgment, functioning both as a work popularly considered the most important in the topic as well as a great introduction.

    • Chapter 3 of Miller (see above). 2013.
    • Connie S. Rosati Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Moral Motivation. 2016.

    Moral responsibility

    Moral realism and irrealism

    A very popular Philosophy Compass paper that lays out very simply what moral realism is without arguing for or against any position.

    An obligatory text laying out the popular companions in guilt argument for moral realisms.

    • Smith (see above). 1998.
    • Enoch (see above). 2011.
    • Chapter 8, 9, and 10 of Miller (see above). 2013.
    • Shafer-Landau (see above). 2005.
    • Katia Vavova Debunking Evolutionary Debunking. 2013.

    Here, Vavova provides a very influential, comprehensive, and easy to read overview of evolutionary debunking arguments, in which she also takes the liberty of pointing out their flaws.

    Korsgaard’s brilliant description, as well as her defense, of a form of Kantian constructivism.

    Research Ethics

    Websites

    National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE) – https://www.nationalethicscenter.org/

    National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General – http://www.nsf.gov/oig/index.jsp

    Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) – http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/

    Office of Research Integrity (ORI) – http://ori.dhhs.gov/

    Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research – http://onlineethics.org/

    Project for Scholarly Integrity – http://www.scholarlyintegrity.org/

    Resources for Research Ethics Education – http://research-ethics.net/

    Email lists

    RCR-Instruction, Office of Research Integrity – send a request to askori@hhs.gov to subscribe

    Journals

    Accountability in Research – http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/08989621.asp

    Ethics and Behavior – http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10508422.asp

    Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics – http://www.ucpressjournals.com/journal.asp?j=jer

    Science and Engineering Ethics – http://www.springer.com/philosophy/ethics/journal/11948#8085218705268172855

    News publications

    The Chronicle of Higher Education – http://www.chronicle.com/

    Nature – http://www.nature.com/

    Science – http://www.sciencemag.org/

    The Scientist – http://www.thescientist.com

    Ethical theory

    Frankena, William K. 1988. Ethics. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

    Rachels, James, and Stuart Rachels. 2009. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Books

    Beach, Dore. 1996. Responsible Conduct of Research. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

    Bebeau, Muriel J., et al. 1995. Moral Reasoning in Scientific Research: Cases for Teaching and Assessment. Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions. Source: Order or download in PDF format at http://poynter.indiana.edu/mr/mr-main.shtml.

    Bulger, Ruth Ellen, Elizabeth Heitman, and Stanley Joel Reiser, eds. 2002. The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

    Elliott, Deni, and Judy E. Stern, eds. 1997. Research Ethics: A Reader. University Press of New England. See also Stern and Elliott, The Ethics of Scientific Research.

    Erwin, Edward, Sidney Gendin, and Lowell Kleiman, eds. 1994. Ethical Issues in Scientific Research: An Anthology. Garland Publishing.

    Fleddermann, Charles B. 2007. Engineering Ethics. 3rd ed. Prentice Hall.

    Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. 2002. Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology: Dialogue for Ethically Conscious Practice. 2nd ed. AltaMira Press.

    Goodstein, David L. 2010. On Fact and Fraud: Cautionary Tales from the Front Lines of Science. Princeton University Press.

    Harris, Charles E., Jr., Michael S. Pritchard, and Michael J. Rabins. 2008. Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases. 4th edition. Wadsworth.

    Israel, Mark, and Iain Hay. 2006. Research Ethics for Social Scientists: Between Ethical Conduct and Regulatory Compliance. SAGE Publications, Limited.

    Johnson, Deborah G. 2008. Computer Ethics. 4th ed. Prentice Hall PTR.

    Korenman, Stanley G., and Allan C. Shipp. 1994. Teaching the Responsible Conduct of Research through a Case Study Approach: A Handbook for Instructors. Association of American Medical Colleges. Source: Order from http://www.aamc.org/publications/

    Loue, Sana. 2000. Textbook of Research Ethics: Theory and Practice. Springer.

    Macrina, Francis L. 2005. Scientific Integrity: Text and Cases in Responsible Conduct of Research. 3rd ed. ASM Press.

    Miller, David J., and Michel Hersen, eds. 1992. Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

    Murphy, Timothy F. 2004. Case Studies in Biomedical Research Ethics. MIT Press.

    National Academy of Sciences. 2009. On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research. 3rd edition. National Academy Press. Source: Order from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12192

    National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Responsible Science, Vol. 1: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. Source: Order from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=1864

    National Academy of Sciences. 1992. Responsible Science, Vol. 2: Background Papers and Resource Documents. Source: Order from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=2091

    Oliver, Paul. 2010. The Students’ Guide to Research Ethics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Education.

    Orlans, F. Barbara, et al., eds. 2008. The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.

    Penslar, Robin Levin, ed. 1995. Research Ethics: Cases and Materials. Indiana University Press.

    Resnik, David B. 1998. The Ethics of Science: An Introduction. Routledge.

    Schrag, Brian, ed. 1997-2006. Research Ethics: Cases and Commentaries. Seven volumes. Association for Practical and Professional Ethics. Source: Order from http://www.indiana.edu/~appe/publications.html#research.

    Seebauer, Edmund G., and Robert L. Barry. 2000. Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists and Engineers. Oxford University Press.

    Seebauer, Edmund G.. 2000. Instructor’s Manual for Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists and Engineers. Oxford University Press.

    Shamoo, Adil E., and David B. Resnik. 2009. Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press.

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin S. 1994. Ethics of Scientific Research. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

    Sieber, Joan E. 1992. Planning Ethically Responsible Research: A Guide for Students and Internal Review Boards. SAGE Publications, Inc.

    Sigma Xi. 1999. Honor in Science. Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Source: Order from http://www.sigmaxi.org/resources/merchandise/index.shtml

    Sigma Xi. 1999. The Responsible Researcher: Paths and Pitfalls. Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. Source: Order from http://www.sigmaxi.org/resources/merchandise/index.shtml or download in PDF format at http://sigmaxi.org/programs/ethics/ResResearcher.pdf

    Steneck, Nicholas H. 2007. ORI Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research. Revised ed. DIANE Publishing Company. Source: Order from http://bookstore.gpo.gov/collections/ori-research.jsp or download in PDF format at http://ori.dhhs.gov/publications/oriintrotext.shtml.

    Stern, Judy E., and Deni Elliott. 1997. The Ethics of Scientific Research: A Guidebook for Course Development. University Press of New England. See also Elliott and Stern, eds., Research Ethics: A Reader.

    Vitelli, Karen D., and Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh, eds. 2006. Archaeological Ethics. 2nd ed. AltaMira Press.

A Comparison of Copper in the U.S.

As humanity’s oldest metal, copper comes in many forms. People have used copper for thousands of years. When the ancient Romans mined the element “cyprium” from Cyprus, the metal soon became known in English as “copper.” 

Copper is produced and consumed in many forms, from the lining of electrical motors to the coating of pennies. Thanks to its high thermal and electrical conductivity, the material is frequently used in telecommunication technologies and as a building material.

The process of copper production includes mining, refining, smelting, and electrowinning. Through smelting and electrolytic refining, engineers and scientists transform mined ores to copper cathodes. Cathodes are thin sheets of pure copper used as raw material for processing the metal into high-quality products. 

Using data available to the public from the U.S. Geological Survey, the copper market has changed to society’s needs over the past years. 

The four major types of copper are mined copper, secondary copper, refined copper and refined electrowon copper. Secondary copper comes from recycled and scrap materials such as tubes, sheets, cables, radiators and castings, as well as from residues like dust or slag. 

Engineers and scientists transform mined pure copper metal and copper from concentrated low-grade ores through smelting and electrolytic refining in creating copper cathodes. Acid leaching of oxidized ores produces more copper.

Thanks to the chemical and physical properties of copper, the material is suitable for electrical and thermal conductivity. Copper’s high ductility and malleability give it key roles in industrial applications of coil wining, power transmission and generation and telecommunication technologies.

The different methods of processing copper have remained constant for the most part between 1990 and 2010. The data is from “U.S. Mineral Dependence—Statistical Compilation of U.S. and World Mineral Production, Consumption, and Trade, 1990–2010” by James J. Barry, Grecia R. Matos and W. David Menzie. The rise in refined copper reflects market trends for the rising demand for refined copper, according to a report in Mining.com. Oxide and sulfur ores generally have between 0.5 and 2.0% copper. The process involves concentrating the ore to remove gangue and other materials.


Differences between reported and apparent processed copper consumption in the U.S. have decreased from 2005 to 2009. Copper consumption itself has dropped.

The various types of copper produced by the U.S. have remained constant over the time period. 

Mined copper has remained the dominant copper produced around the world, though refined copper has come close or equal to it from 1996 to 2001. Refined electrowon copper has steadily surpassed secondary copper over the time period, too. 

The epistemology and metaphysics of causality

The epistemology of causality

There are two epistemic approaches to causal theory. Under a hypothetico-deductive account, we hypothesize causal relationships and deduce predictions based on them. We test these hypotheses and predictions by comparing empirical phenomena and other knowledge and information on what actually happens to these theories. We may also take an inductive approach in which we make a large number of appropriate, justified observations (such as a set of data) from which we can induce causal relationships directly from them.

Hypothetico-Deductive discovery

The testing phase of this account of discovery and causality uses the views on the nature of causality to determine whether we support or refute the hypothesis. We search for physical processes underlying the causal relationships of the hypothesis. We can use statistics and probability to determine which consequences of hypotheses are verified, like comparing our data to a distribution such as a Gaussian or Dirichlet one. We can further probe these consequences on a probabilistic level and show that changing hypothesized causes can predict, determine, or guarantee effects.

Philosopher Karl Popper advocated this approach for causal explanations of events that consist of natural laws, which are universal statements about the world. He designated initial conditions, single-case statements, from which we may deduce outcomes and form predictions of various events. These case initial conditions call for effects that we can determine, such as whether a physical system will approach thermodynamic equilibrium or how a population might evolve under the influence of predators or external forces. Popper delineated the method of hypothesizing laws, deducing their consequences, and rejecting laws that aren’t supported as a cyclical process. This is the covering-law account of causal explanation.

Inductive learning

Philosopher Francis Bacon promoted the inductive account of scientific learning and reasoning. From a very high number of observations of some phenomenon or event with experimental, empirical evidence where it’s appropriate, we can compile a table of positive instances (in which a phenomenon occurs), negative instances (it doesn’t occur), and partial instances (it occurs to a certain degree). This gives a multidimensionality to phenomena that characterize causal relationships from both a priori and a posterior perspectives.

Inductivist artificial intelligence (AI) approaches have in common the feature that causal relationships can be determined from statistical relationships. We assume the Causal Markov condition holds of physical causality and physical probability. This Causal Markov Condition plays a significant deterministic role in the various features of the model and the events or phenomena it predicts. A causal net must have the Causal Markov Condition as an assumption or premise. For structural equation models (SEM), Causal Markov Conditions result from representations of each variable as a function of its direct causes and an associated error variable with it. We assume probabilistic independence of each error variable. We then find the class of causal models or a single best causal model with probabilistic independences that are justified by the Causal Markov Condition. They should be consistent with independences we can infer from the data, and we might also make further assumptions about the minimality (no submodel of the causal model also satisfied the Causal Markov Condition), faithfulness (all independences in the data are implied via the Causal Markov Condition), linearity (all variables are linear functions of their direct causes and uncorrelated error variables). We may also define causal sufficiency, whether all common causes of measured variables are measured, and context generality, every individual or node in the model has causal relations of the population. These two features let us describe models and methods of scientific reasoning as causal in nature and, from there, we may apply appropriate causal models such as Bayesian, frequentist, or similar methods of prediction. We may even illustrate a causal diagram or model elements under various conditions such as those given by independence or constraints on variables.

This way, in the intercorrelatedness of the graph or model, we can’t change the value of a variable without affecting the way it relates to other variables, but there may conditions in which we construct models that have autonomous nodes or variables. The way these features and claims of inductivist AI interact with another is subject to debate by the underlying assumptions, justification, and methods of reasoning behind these models.

Metaphysics of causality

We can pose questions about the mathematization of causality even with the research and methods that have dominated the work on probability and its consequences. We can speculate what causality is and the opinions on the nature of causality as they relate to the axioms and definitions that have remained stable in the theories of probability and statistics.

We can elaborate three types of causality approaches. The first is that causality is only a heuristic and has no role in scientific reasoning and discourse, as philosopher Bertrand Russel argued. Science depends upon functional relationships, not causal laws. The second position is that causality is a fundamental feature of the world, a universal principle. We should, therefore, treat it as a scientific primitive. This position evolved out of conflict with purported philosophical analyses that appealed to asymmetry of time (that it moves in one direction) to explain the asymmetry of causation (that they move in one direction and one direction only). This raises concerns of how to interpret time in terms of causality. The third is we can reduce causal relations to other concepts that don’t involve causal notions. Many philosophers support this position, and, as such, there are four divisions within this position.

The first schism we discuss is that causality is a relation between variables that are single-case or repeatable according to the interpretation of causality in question. We interpret causality as a mental in nature given that causality is a feature of an agent’s epistemic state and physical if it’s a feature of the external world. We interpret it as subjective if two agents with the same relevant knowledge can disagree on a conclusion of the relationships with both positions correct, as though they were a matter of arbitrary choice. Otherwise we interpret it as objective. The subjective-objective schism raises issues between how different positions would be regarded as correct and what determines the subjective element or role subjectivity plays in these two different positions.

The second partition is the mechanistic account of causality – that physical processes link cause and effect. We interpret causal statements as giving information about these processes. Philosophers Wesley Salmon and Phil Dowe advocate this position as they argue causal processes transmit or have a conserved physical quantity to them. We may describe the relation between energy and mass (E = mc²) as causal relations from start (cause) to a finish (effect). One may argue against this position on the grounds that these relations in science have no specific direction one way or another and are symmetrical and not subject to causality. It does, however, relate single cases linked by physical processes even if we can induce causal regularities or laws from these connections in an objective manner. If two people disagree on the causal connections, one or both are wrong.

This approach is difficult to apply. The physics of these quantities aren’t determined by the causal relations themselves. The conservation of these physical quantities may suggest causal links to physicists, they aren’t relevant in the fields that emerge from physics such as chemistry or engineering. This would lead one to believe the epistemology of the causal concepts are irrelevant to their metaphysics. If this were the case, the knowledge of a causal relationship would have little to do with the causal connection itself.

The third subdivision is probabilistic causality in which we treat causal connections with probabilistic relationships of variables. We can debate which probabilistic relationships among variables of probabilistic causality determine or create causal relationships. One might say the Principle of Common Cause (if two variables are probabilistically dependent, then one causes the other or they’re effects of common causes that make them independent from one another). Philosopher Hans Reichenbach applied this to causality to provide a probabilistic analysis of time in its single direction. More recent philosophers use the Causal Markov Condition as a necessary condition for causality with other less central conditions. We normally apply probabilistic causality to repeatable variables such that probability handles them, but critics may argue the Principle of the Common Cause and the Causal Markov Conditions have counterexamples showing they don’t hold in under all conditions.

Finally, the fourth subclass is the counterfactual account, as advocated by philosopher David Lewis. In this way, we reduce causal relations to subjunctive conditions such that an effect depends causally on a cause if and only iff (1) if the cause were to occur, then the effect would occur (or its chance to occur would raise significantly) and (2) if the cause didn’t occur then the effect wouldn’t occur. The transitive closure of the Causal Depedendence (that a cause will either increase the probability of a direct effect or, if it’s a preventative, make the effect less likely, as long as the effect’s other direct causes are held fixed) holds. The causal relationships are what goes on in possible worlds that are similar to our own. Lewis introduced counterfactual theory to account of the causal relationships between single-case events and causal relationships that are mind-independent and objective. We may still press this account by arguing that we have no physical contact with these possible worlds or that there isn’t an objective way to determine which worlds are closest to our own or which worlds we should follow and analyze in determining causality. The counterfactualist may respond that the worlds we choose are the ones in which the cause-and-effect relationship occurs as closer to our own world and, from there, determine which appropriate world is closest to our own.

Contextual Emergence

What is contextual emergence?

The patterns that emerge from Conway’s Game of Life do so depending on the underlying theory.

Contextual emergence is a specific kind of relationship between different domains of scientific descriptions of particular phenomena. Although these domains are not ordered strictly hierarchically, one often speaks of lower and higher levels of description in which emergence occurs. From the lower levels (L), more fundamental in a certain sense, phenomena emerge in higher levels (H) in more complex phenomena. Strings of DNA in a genome may correspond to different transcripts on an transcriptome level for an individual. Chaotic conditions may emerge from certain differential equations subject to certain constraints. This complexity depends on the conditions of the context. Hence, contextual emergence.

Contextual emergence involves well-defined relationships between different levels of complexity. We can use a two-step procedure to create a systematic, formal way that an individual description (Li) creates a statistical description (Ls) among the lower level. This process can lead us to describe individuals at a higher level (Hi). We iterate this process (Li -> Ls -> Hi) through sets of descriptions connected with one another to reveal what emerges at higher levels.

During this method, we identify equivalence classes of individual states that are indistinguishable with respect to a certain property of the entire system. We can realize different statistical states in Ls by individual states in Li. Each state has limited knowledge, but, together, we can create probability distributions represent the statistical states Ls. This could be how spike signals from neural circuits encode for higher-level functions in the brain.

A property dualist position would also recognize three features of this emergence. The emergent property at the higher level Hi must have real instances, remain co-occurrent with some property or complex feature recognized in the lower level, and this property can’t be reduced to any property postulated by or definable within the lower level.

Then, we can assign individual states at the higher level H to coextensional statistical states at level L. We use a top-down constraint. This needs information about the higher description to choose a context setting the framework for the set of observable properties at level H created from L. We can implement stability criteria at level L such that the appropriate context emerges at level H. The stability refers to the ability for the features of the system to remain valid even under small changes. This includes equilibrium states of gas systems and homeostatic relationships between units of biological mechanisms such as glycolysis. We may also define stability as systems that have boundaries maintained under the dynamics specified for it We may choose to confine ourselves to certain electrochemical properties that emerge from membrane dynamics in synaptic networks. This allows the emergent properties to remain well-defined from the contextual topology of L. It also tells us which properties of L are relevant to the contextual emergence of H.

This interplay between upward and downward strategies lets the system remain self-consistent. Moving from a higher context to a lower one requires the stability conditions to lead to lower-level partitions of the system while moving to a higher context means the statistics of lower-level states extend to higher-level individual states we can observe.

Philosopher Aristotle argued emergent structures arise when their constituents interact in an interdependent manner, but others may argue that emergence may occur even if the parts act independently of one another or even be autonomous. In either case, to echo the theory of Gestalt, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Point mechanics to statistical mechanics to thermodynamics

We can even demonstrate the relationship between different fields of science through contextual emergence. Moving from classical point mechanics, involving forces due to gravitational effects and electromagnetism, to statistical mechanics to thermodynamics illustrates this phenomena. From point mechanics to statistical mechanics particles or other individual units (Li) form ensemble distributions which can be studied using statistics. We can define many-particle systems with statistical ensemble descriptions (Ls) like momenta or energy of distributions, such as the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for N particles. From there, we can find mean kinetic energy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, and other statistical quantities.

We can observe expectation values of momenta distributions of particle ensembles to calculate temperature of the system as a higher-level function (Hi) on the assumption the system is in equilibrium. The zeroth law of thermodynamics does not come from statistical mechanics, but from thermodynamics. Other features such as irreversibility and adiabatic nature emerge as well. We can characterize this thermal equilibrium (Hi) using Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) states, defined by the condition that characterizes the structural stability of a KMS state against local perturbations or changes. This leads to stationarity, ergodicity, and mixing using the zeroth law of thermodynamics to define the system as stable. We can also use the second law of thermodynamics to express the stability in maximization of entropy for thermal equilibrium states.

The first step of the contextual emergence process (Li -> Ls) describes statistical states from the individual states, and the second gives individual thermal states from statistical mechanical states. Other examples may include emergence of geometric optics from electrodynamics, electrical engineering features from electrodynamics, chirality from quantum mechanics, and diffusion or friction of a quantum particle in a thermal medium. Neuroscientists have even found use in contextually emerging cognitive states from neural correlates.

Hodgkin-Huxley equations

The Hodgkin-Huxley equations that describe generation and propagation of action potential form a system of four ordinary nonlinear differential equations: an electric conductance equation for transmemberane currents and three master equations for the opening kinetics of sodium and potassium channels. These lower-level stochastic (using Markov processes as transition probabilities) phenomena lead to higher-level descriptions of ion channel function to characterize a deterministic dynamic system. We can treat ion channels as macro-molecular quantum objects with the Schrödinger equation for many particles. The Schrödinger equation describes a highly entangled state of electrons and atomic nuclei as a whole, and, on a molecular level, the structure of a closed or open pore of an ion channel through the Born-Oppenheimer approximation separates electronic and nucleonic wave functions. Then, we can use the electronic quantum dynamics in a constrained rigid nucleonic frame that has a classical spatial structure. This stochastic spatial structure gives the equations of the Hodgkin-Huxley system as a contextually emergent phenomenon.

Mental states emerging from neuroscience

To realize mental states from neural states, we specify the L level as neuron states of neural assemblies in the brain with respect to H, a class of mental states that reflects the situation under study. We may use experimental protocols that include a task for subjects to define mental states while recording brain states. We may use individual neuron properties Li to find Ls such that statistical states have equivalence classes of those individual states. The differences must be irrelevant with respect to the higher level H. Philosopher David Chalmers said a neural correlate of a conscious mental state can be multiply realized by “minimally sufficient neural subsystems correlated with states of consciousness” in “What is a neural correlate of consciousness?”

We can look at phenomenal families, sets of mutually exclusive phenomenal mental states that jointly partition a space of mental states. Creature consciousness can give us refined levels of phenomenal states of background consciousness (awake, dreaming, etc.), wake consciousness (perceptual, cognitive, affective, etc.), perceptual consciousness (visual, auditory, tactile, etc.), and visual consciousness (color, form, location, etc.). With one of these contexts, we choose stability criterion at Ls that has complicated neurodynamics to find robust, proper statistical states.

We may describe L-dynamics and H-dynamics meshing with one another if coarse graining and time evolution commute with one another. We create meshes, parts of space differentiated by complexes of cells between the two levels, that follow from higher-level stability criterion. The coarse graining means fine details of the system can be smoothed over, as entropy of the system increases, such that we can make predictions about the system as a whole.

Contextual emergence could help artificial intelligence approach its potential while accounting for the inherent, intrinsic differences between science and philosophy. We may model the mind as a contextual emergent phenomena of the neurophysiology of the brain. As we learn about the world, we can account for emergent phenomena when addressing issues in science and philosophy, and AI would benefit from these methods of understanding. AI could avoid the issues of reductionism using higher-level emergent behavior resulting from neural networks in the human brain. Backpropagation of neural networks lets us optimize the gap between reality and models they represent using feedback loops with optimal weights of individual neurons when optimized for emergent details. The same way a human can differentiate between a drawing of an lion and a photograph of a lion itself using the emergent phenomena of visual images that appear together to create a lion, intelligent machines can embrace contextual emergence to view the work with inquisitive wonder and curiosity to learn. Instead of having to show a computer hundreds of thousands of images of a lion to teach them how to identify a lion, they can realize a lion in another context, such as lines of a piece of artwork, through the emergent properties of a drawing of a lion itself.

Emergence in AI can account for emotional reactions and instincts by evolving using stochastic emergent phenomena the same way human intelligence has evolved. We may address the role emotions and biases play in decision-making and intelligence, as described by psychologists Daniel Kahneman, Amos Tversky, and Gerd Gigerenzer.

We can represent proper cells with basins of attraction and chaotic attractors with coarse-grained generating partitions. These partitions of the system lead to Markov chains with a rigorous theoretical constraint for the proper definition of stable mental states. The mathematical techniques come from ergodic theory and symbolic dynamics.

The emergence of mental states from electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics shows that data from subjects with EEG data from sporadic epileptic seizures can correlate with mental states of the seizures themselves. Using a 20-channel EEG recording, we get a 20-dimension state space that we reduce to a lower number through principal component restrictions. We find a homogeneous grid of cells to set up a Markov transition matrix that reflects the EEG dynamics using fine-grained auxiliary partition. Then, this matrix gives eigenvalues that characterize time scales for which the dynamics can be ordered by size. The eigenvectors span an eigenvector space such that the measure principal component states form a simplex. The three leading eigenvalue give a neural state representation that has a 2-simplex with three vertices, or a triangle. We can further classify neural states by distance from the vertices of the simplex to clusters of neural data. In the principal component state space, the clusters appear as non-intersecting convex sets between mental states. We may also use recurrence structure analysis to partition the state space into recurrent clusters such that they overlap from the recurrence plot of the dynamical system. We figure out the metastable states and transitions between them using a Markov chain with one distinguished transient state and other states representing the metastable states in the dynamics.

Intentionality

Philosopher Daniel Dennett describes the intentional stance of the prediction of a system’s behavior too complex to be treated as either a physical or designed system. Intentional systems behave in predicted ways by ascribing beliefs and desires to their internal states. From thermostats to chess computers, we can make predictions of a system with necessary and sufficient conditions. The system’s dynamics have to be non-trivial, so this excludes linear systems with periodic oscillations or damped relaxations. We construct an intentional hierarchy from general case of nonlinear nonequilibrium dissipative systems to more specific intentional systems. A physical system’s physical nature is necessary for being a nonlinear dissipative nonequilibrium system while a nonlinear dissipative nonequiliibrium nature is necessary for an intentional system. An intentional system is necessary for being a true believer, according to Dennett. Sufficient conditions in the intentional hierarchy implement contextual stability conditions.

The transition from equilibrium thermodynamics to fluid dynamics represents phenomenal laws of fluid dynamics (like the Navier-Stokes equation) emerging from statistical mechanics under the assumption of local equilibrium. Sufficient boundary conditions give rise to self-organization, such as through “magnetic snakes.” We give a rationality constraint for optimal dissipation of pumped energy, and true believers emerge contextually as intentional systems under mutual adoption of the intentional stance.

The representational thought may reference aboutness, and the intentional approach concerns the contentfulness or meaningfulness of representational states. We may create a network theory of meaning that emerges from the semantics of a system. Philosopher Karl Popper argued against reductionism on the grounds there’s a world of abstract, nonphysical objects we interact with when we reason, discover proofs, speculate consequences, use language, and think about mathematics and philosophy. This autonomous reality (known as World 3, with World 1 being physical laws and World 2 as mental events and processes) we find dispositions to verbal behavior and wiring in the brain. Popper implies it’s more understandable how nonphysical states interact with intelligibilia than how neural states might.

Symbolic grounding

The symbolic grounding problem is the problem fo assigning meaning to symbols on purely syntactic grounds. Cognitivists such as philosophers Jerry Fodor and Zenon Pylyshyn have described this problem. It can also describe how the question of how conscious mental states can be characterized by neural correlates. The relation between analog and digital systems such that syntactic digital symbols relate to the analog behavior of a system they describe symbolically needs to be further examined through dynamical automata. Piecewise linear time-discrete maps over a two-dimensional state space assume the interpretation as symbolic computers through a rectangular partition of the unit square. A single point trajectory is not fully interpretable as symbolic computation. We need higher-level macrostates from ensembles of state space points, or probability distributions of points, that evolve under the dynamics.

Writer Beim Graben showed only uniform probability distributions that have rectangular support exhibit a stable dynamics can be interpreted as computation. The huge space of possible probability distributions can be contextually restricted to a subclass of uniform probability distributions to create meaningfully grounded symbolic processes. Symbolic grounding is contextually emergent.

Mental causation

Describing the mind as causally relevant in a physical world introduces the problem of mental causation, the question of how mental phenomena can be highly significant in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. It means creating a notion of agency that includes the causal efficacy of mental states. This causal efficacy of mental phenomena seems inconsistent with vertical (interlevel, synchronic) determination of the mental state by neural correlates. Philosopher Jaegwon Kim argued supervenience (also known as exclusion) describes the problem that mental states are either causally inefficacious or have the threat of overdetermining neural states. Either mental events play nor horizontally determining causal role at all or they’re the causes of the neural bases of their relevant horizontal mental effects. Contextual emergence through different levels of complexity means the conflict between horizontal and vertical determination of mental events isn’t an issue. We can define proper mental states from dynamics of an underlying neural system through statistical neural states on proper partitions with individual mental states.

This construction implies that the mental dynamics and the neural dynamics, related to each other by a so-called intertwiner, are topologically equivalent. Instead of some mutually exclusive duality of the mental and the neural, we have a monistic idea that they are part of one and the same concept, albeit related to one another
in a significant way. We can describe it using dual-aspect monism using symmetry breakdown conceptually prior to the opposite of generalization. When symmetries between entities restore themselves, we observe the similarities brought upon by the symmetries and generate equivalence classes of increasing size that can describe contextually emergent phenomena. Given properly defined mental states, the neural dynamics gives rise to a mental dynamics that is independent of those neurodynamical details that are irrelevant for a proper construction of mental states. Mental states can be causally and horizontally related to other mental states, and they neither cause their vertical neural determiners nor cause the horizontal effects of the neural determiners. This resolve the problem of mental causation in a deflationary manner. Vertical and horizontal determination don’t compete against one another. They work cooperatively.

Mental causation is a horizontal relation between previous and future mental states with effectiveness given by the vertical relation (the downward relation of neural states from higher-level mental constraints). Psychophysical neutral elementary entities are composed to sets of such entities that depend on the composition of these sets in a way they acquire mental or physical properties. The psychophysically neutral domain does not have elementary entities waiting to be composed, but, rather, has one overarching whole to be decomposed into its parts. The mental and material from a psychophysical neural whole causes a contextual emergence that requires a new technical explanation and a metaphysical one.

The technical framework refers to the contextual emergence of multiplicity from unity. The “primordial” decomposition of an undivided whole generates different domains that gives rise to differentiations, such as the mind-matter distinction. The psychophysical neutral reality is the trivial, completely symmetric partition in which nothing is distinguished from one another. We can decompose this to give rise to more and more refined partitions in which symmetries are broke and equivalence classes become smaller and smaller. Phenomenal families of mental states emerge.

On a metaphysical level, mental and physical epistemic limits describe the undivided whole as an ontic (physical factual existence) dimension. They reminisce of philosopher Plato’s abstract perfect ideas and philosopher Immanuel Kant’s things-in-thesmelves (empirically inaccessible in principle and specifically mute). The mind-matter problem causes an emergence of mind-matter correlations as direct and immediate consequence of the ontic, undivided whole that can’t be further divided without introducing more distinctions. Many describe determinism as a feature of ontic descriptions of states and observables while stochasticity uses epistemic descriptions.

Mathematical models of classical point mechanics are most common examples of deterministic descriptions and three properties of them are important. (1) The differential dynamics mean the system’s evolution obeys a differential equation in a space of ontic states. (2) The unique evolution of the system means initial and boundary conditions give a unique trajectory. (3) The value determinateness assumes that any state can be described with arbitrarily small error. These three features define a hierarchy for the contextual emergence of deterministic descriptions assuming (1) is a necessary condition for determinism, (2) can be proven under sufficient condition that trajectories created by a vector field obeying (1) pass through points whose distance is stable under small perturbations. We assume (2) for almost every initial condition as a necessary condition of determinism that defines a phase flow with weak causality. To prove (3), we need strong causality as a sufficient condition. The deterministic dynamics of Kolmogorov flow implement microscopic chaos as a stability condition. It’s also possible a continuous stochastic process that fulfills the Markov criterion can lead to a deterministic “mean-field equation.”

Different descriptive levels can correlate with different degrees of granularity. Lower-level descriptions address systems in terms of micro-properties while more global macro-properties account for higher-level descriptions. Philosophy Bas van Fraassen noted the explanatory relativity, in which explanations are not only
relationships between theories and facts, but three-place relations between theories, facts, and contexts. Contexts determine relevance of explanation backed by relevance criteria for reproducibility in science, especially in interdisciplinary fields such as bioinformatics or computational neuroscience. This gives a framework for discussing contextual emergence alongside theories and facts as they relate to explanations. We consider the granularity of descriptions that we observe when descriptive levels transform between one another and their associated granularities by the interlevel relation of contextual emergence. This gives a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to construct level-specific criteria for relevant observables across disciplines.

Reductionism and ontology

It may seem appealing to reduce every system down to its fundamental components and conclude that every empirical phenomena in science or other disciplines is only applied mathematics. But this misses out on the features of the whole that emerge in the contexts of the higher layers which cannot be reduced. Consciousness among neural and mental correlates of different states provide one example, but we only need to look at any example, such as the emergence of transcriptome interactions from how a genome itself structures itself, to realize that these properties come about only at the higher levels, and, therefore, involve phenomena that are not completely reducible to mathematics. Biologist Peter Corning argued in “The Re-Emergence of “Emergence”: A Venerable Concept in Search of a Theory” that whole systems produce unique combined effects that may involve the context between and the interactions with the system and its environment.

Contextual emergence has been originally conceived as a relation between levels of descriptions, not levels of nature: It addresses questions of epistemology rather than ontology. In agreement with Esfeld, who advocated that ontology needs to regain more significance in science, it would be desirable to know how ontological considerations might be added to the picture that contextual emergence provides.

Various granularity degrees raises questions of descriptions with finer grains as they relate to the fundamental nature of systems when compared to coarser grains. The majority of scientists and philosophers of science answer believe this, so there’s one fundamental ontolgoy that elementary particle physics result from reducing other descriptive levels. This reductive premise produced critical assessments and alternative proposals. Philosopher Willard Van Oramn Quine introduced the ontological relatively that, if there is one ontology that fulfills a given descriptive theory, there is more than one. Philosopher Hilary Putnam developed a related kind of ontological relativity, first called internal realism, and later referred to as pragmatic realism.

We may apply Quine’s ideas to concrete scientific descriptions, their relationships with one another, and their referents. A descriptive framework can be ontic or epistemic depending on which other framework it relates to. An engineer may consider wires of an electrical circuit to be ontic, but a solid-state physicist may consider them epistemic. We can use the relevance criteria to distinguish between context-specific descriptions and avoid pitfalls of reductionism. We create a subtle and more flexible framework while still restricting ourselves to the premises and limits of the contextually emergent model.

Strong and weak emergence

Weak emergence involves emergent properties that computer simulations can control such that the interacting cells of the system retain their independence. Other emergent properties, irreducible to the system’s constituent parts, are strong. Both are supervenient and involve novel properties as the system grows, but the distinction introduces a scale-dependency to observable phenomena.