An introduction to philosophy

Table of contents


Classical ethics

  • Aristotle “Nichomachean Ethics” “On Virtues and Vices”

Christian and Medieval ethics

  • Thomas Aquinas “Summa Theologica”

  • Saint Bonaventure “Commentary on the Sentences”

  • Duns Scotus “Philosophical Writings”

  • William of Ockham “Sum of Logic”

Modern ethics

  • G. E. M. Anscombe “Modern Moral Philosophy”

  • David Gauthier “Morals by Agreement”

  • Alan Gewirth “Reason and Morality”

  • Allan Gibbard “Thinking How to Live”

  • Susan Hurley “Natural Reasons”

  • Christine Korsgaard “The Sources of Normativity”

  • John McDowell “Values and Secondary Qualities”

  • Alasdair MacIntyre “After Virtue”

  • J. L. Mackie “Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong”

  • G. E. Moore “Principia Ethica”

  • Martha Nussbaum “The Fragility of Goodness”

  • Derek Parfit “Reasons and Persons”

  • Derek Parfit “On What Matters”

  • Peter Railton “Facts, Values, and Norms”

  • W. D. Ross “The Right and the Good”

  • Thomas M. Scanlon “What We Owe to Each Other”

  • Samuel Scheffler “The Rejection of Consequentialism”

  • Peter Singer “Practical Ethics”

  • Michael A. Smith “The Moral Problem”

  • Bernard Williams “Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy”

Postmodern ethics

  • Zygmunt Bauman “Postmodern Ethics”

  • Terry Eagleton “The Illusions of Postmodernism”


  • Don Marquis “Why Abortion is Immoral”

  • Paul Ramsey “The Patient as a Person” “Fabricated Man”

  • Judith Jarvis Thomson “A Defense of Abortion”

Meta-ethics (Metaethics)

  • P. F. Strawson “Freedom and Resentment”


  • Laurence Bonjour “The Structure of Empirical Knowledge”

  • Luc Bovens “Bayesian Epistemology”

  • Stanley Cavell “The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy”

  • Roderick Chisholm “Theory of Knowledge”

  • Keith DeRose “The Case for Contextualism”

  • René Descartes “Discourse on the Method”, “Meditations on First Philosophy”

  • Edmund Gettier “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?”

  • Alvin Goldman “Epistemology and Cognition” “What is Justified Belief?”

  • Susan Haack “Evidence and Enquiry”

  • Hilary Kornblith “Knowledge and its Place in Nature”

  • Jonathan Kvanvig “The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding”

  • David K. Lewis “Elusive Knowledge”

  • G. E. Moore “A Defence of Common Sense”

  • Willard van Orman Quine “Epistemology Naturalized”

  • Richard Rorty “Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature”

  • Bertrand Russell “The Problems of Philosophy”

  • Jason Stanley “Knowledge and Practical Interest”

  • Stephen Stich “The Fragmentation of Reason”

  • Peter Unger “Ignorance: A Case for Scepticism”

  • Timothy Williamson “Knowledge and its Limits”


  • Donald Davidson “Truth and Meaning”

  • Gottlob Frege “Begriffsschrift”

  • Kurt Gödel, “On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems”

  • Saul Kripke, “Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic”

  • Charles Sanders Peirce “How to Make Our Ideas Clear”

  • Alfred Tarski “The Concept of Truth”


  • Theodor Adorno “Aesthetic Theory”

  • R.G. Collingwood “The Principles of Art”

  • Arthur C. Danto “After the End of Art”

  • Nelson Goodman “Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols”

  • George Santayana “The Sense of Beauty”


  • Aristotle “Metaphysics”

  • D.M. Armstrong “Universals and Scientific Realism”

  • A. J. Ayer “Language, Truth, and Logic”

  • Rudolf Carnap “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology”

  • David Chalmers “Constructing the World”

  • John Dewey “Experience and Nature”

  • William James “Pragmatism”

  • Immanuel Kant “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals”

  • James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, John Collier “Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized”

  • John McDowell “Mind and World”

  • David Kellogg Lewis “On the Plurality of Worlds”

  • Stephen Mumford “Dispositions”

  • Derek Parfit “Reasons and Persons”

  • Willard Van Orman Quine “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” “On What There Is”

  • Theodore Sider “Writing the Book of the World”

  • Alfred North Whitehead “Process and Reality”

  • Timothy Williamson “Modal Logic as Metaphysics”

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus” (a.k.a. The Tractatus)

Philosophy of the mind

  • D. M. Armstrong “A Materialist Theory of the Mind”

  • Peter Carruthers “The Architecture of the Mind”

  • David Chalmers “Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings” “The Character of Consciousness” “The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory”

  • Paul Churchland “Matter and Consciousness: A Contemporary Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind”

  • Andy Clark “Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension”

  • Daniel Dennett “Consciousness Explained”

  • Jaegwon Kim “Philosophy of Mind”

  • Ruth Millikan “Varieties of Meaning”

  • Gilbert Ryle “The Concept of Mind”

History of philosophy

Western civilization

  • Bertrand Russell “A History of Western Philosophy”

Classical philosophy

  • Marcus Aurelius “Meditations””

  • Plato “Symposium” “Parmenides” “Phaedrus”

Christian and Medieval

  • Augustine of Hippo “Confessions” “The City of God”

  • Anselm of Canterbury “Proslogion”

Early modern

  • Sir Francis Bacon “Novum Organum”

  • Jeremy Bentham “An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation”

  • Henri Bergson “Time and Free Will” “Matter and Memory”

  • George Berkeley “Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge”

  • Auguste Comte “Course of Positive Philosophy”

  • René Descartes “Principles of Philosophy” “Passions of the Soul”

  • Desiderius Erasmus “The Praise of Folly”

  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte “Foundations of the Science of Knowledge”

  • Hugo Grotius “De iure belli ac pacis”

  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel “Phenomenology of Spirit” “Science of Logic” “The Philosophy of Right” “The Philosophy of History”

  • Thomas Hobbes “Leviathan”

  • David Hume “A Treatise of Human Nature” “Four Dissertationss” “Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary” “An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding” “An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals”

  • Immanuel Kant “A Critique of Pure Reason” “Critique of Practical Reason” “A Critique of Judgement”

  • Søren Kierkegaard “Either/Or” “Fear and Trembling” “The Concept of Anxiety”

  • Gottfried Leibniz “Discourse on Metaphysics” “New Essays Concerning Human Understanding” “Théodicée” “Monadology”

  • John Locke “Two Treatises of Government” “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”

  • Niccolò Machiavelli “The Prince”

  • Karl Marx “The Communist Manifesto” “Das Kapital”

  • John Stuart Mill “On Liberty “Utilitarianism”

  • John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill “The Subjection of Women”

  • Michel de Montaigne “Essays”

  • Friedrich Nietzsche “Thus Spoke Zarathustra” “Beyond Good and Evil” “On the Genealogy of Morals”

  • Blaise Pascal “Pensées”

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau “Discourse on the Arts and Sciences” “Emile: or, On Education” “The Social Contract”

  • Arthur Schopenhauer “The World as Will and Representation”

  • Henry Sidgwick “The Methods of Ethics”

  • Adam Smith “The Theory of Moral Sentiments” “The Wealth of Nations”

  • Herbert Spencer “System of Synthetic Philosophy”

  • Baruch Spinoza “Ethics” “Tractatus Theologico-Politicus”

  • Max Stirner “The Ego and Its Own”

  • Mary Wollstonecraft “A Vindication of the Rights of Women”


Phenomenology and existentialism
  • Simone de Beauvoir “The Second Sex”

  • Albert Camus “Myth of Sisyphus”

  • Martin Heidegger “Being and Time”

  • Edmund Husserl “Logical Investigations” “Cartesian Meditations” “Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy”

  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty “Phenomenology of Perception”

  • Jean-Paul Sartre, “Being and Nothingness” “Critique of Dialectical Reason”

Hermeneutics and deconstruction
  • Jacques Derrida “Of Grammatology”

  • Hans-Georg Gadamer “Truth and Method”

  • Paul Ricœur “Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation”

Structuralism and post-structuralism
  • Michel Foucault “The Order of Things”

  • Gilles Deleuze “Difference and Repetition”

  • Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari “Capitalism and Schizophrenia”

  • Luce Irigaray “Speculum of the Other Woman”

  • Michel Foucault “Discipline and Punish”

Critical theory and Marxism
  • Theodor Adorno “Negative Dialectics”

  • Louis Althusser “Reading Capital”

  • Alain Badiou “Being and Event”

  • Jürgen Habermas “Theory of Communicative Action”

  • Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno “Dialectic of Enlightenment”

  • Georg Lukacs “History and Class Consciousness”

  • Herbert Marcuse “Reason and Revolution” “Eros and Civilization”

Eastern civilization

Chinese philosophy

  • “The Record of Linji”

  • Han Fei “Han Feizi”

  • Kongzi “Analects” “Five Classics”

  • Laozi “Dao De Jing”

  • Mengzi “Mengzi”

  • Sunzi “Art of War”

  • Zhou Dunyi “The Taiji Tushuo”

  • Zhu Xi “Four Books” “Reflections on Things at Hand”

Indian philosophy

  • “The Upanishads”

  • “The Bhagavad Gita” (“The Song of God”)

  • Aksapada Gautama “Nyaya Sutras”

  • Isvarakrsna “Sankhya Karika”

  • Kanada “Vaisheshika Sutra”

  • Patañjali “Yoga Sutras”

  • Swami Swatamarama “Hatha Yoga Pradipika”

  • Vyasa “Brahma Sutras”

  • Tami “Thiruvalluvar”

Islamic philosophy

  • Al-Ghazali “The Incoherence of the Philosophers”

Japanese philosophy

  • Hakuin Ekaku “Wild Ivy”

  • Honen “One-Sheet Document”

  • Kukai “Attaining Enlightenment in this Very Existence”

  • Zeami Motokiyo “Style and Flower”

  • Miyamoto Musashi “The Book of Five Rings”

  • Shinran “Kyogyoshinsho”

  • Dogen Zenji “Shōbōgenzō”

Philosophy of other disciplines


  • John Dewey “Democracy and Education”

  • Terry Eagleton “The Slow Death of the University”

  • Paulo Freire “Pedagogy of the Oppressed”

  • Martha Nussbaum “Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities”

  • B.F. Skinner “Walden Two”

  • Charles Weingartner and Neil Postman “Teaching as a Subversive Activity”


  • William Lane Craig “The Kalam Cosmological Argument”

  • J. L. Mackie “The Miracle of Theism”

  • Dewi Zephaniah Phillips “Religion Without Explanation”

  • Alvin Plantinga “God and Other Minds” “Is Belief in God Properly Basic”

  • William Rowe “The Evidential Argument from Evil: A Second Look”

  • J. L. Schellenberg “Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason”

  • Richard Swinburne “The Existence of God”


  • Paul Feyerabend “Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge”

  • Bas C. van Fraassen “The Scientific Image”

  • Nelson Goodman “Fact, Fiction, and Forecast”

  • Thomas Samuel Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”

  • Larry Laudan “The Demise of the Demarcation Problem”

  • David K. Lewis “How to Define Theoretical Terms”

  • Karl Pearson “The Grammar of Science”

  • Karl Popper “The Logic of Scientific Discovery”

  • Hans Reichenbach “The Rise of Scientific Philosophy”


  • Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell “Principia Mathematica”

  • Paul Benacerraf “What Numbers Could not Be” “Mathematical Truth”

  • Paul Benacerraf and Hilary Putnam “Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings”

  • George Boolos “Logic, Logic and Logic”

  • Hartry Field “Science without Numbers: The Defence of Nominalism”

  • Imre Lakatos “Proofs and Refutations”

  • Penelope Maddy “Second Philosophy”


  • Aristotle “Physics”

  • Michel Bitbol “Mécanique quantique : Une introduction philosophique” “Schrödinger’s Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics”

  • Chris Isham and Jeremy Butterfield “On the Emergence of Time in Quantum Gravity”

  • Tim Lewens “The Meaning of Science: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science”

Computer science

  • Scott Aaronson “Why Philosophers Should Care About Computational Complexity”

  • Judea Pearl “Causality”

  • Ray Turner “The Philosophy of Computer Science” “Computational Artefacts-Towards a Philosophy of Computer Science”


  • John Bickle “Revisionary Physicalism” “Psychoneural Reduction of the Genuinely Cognitive: Some Accomplished Facts” “Psychoneural Reduction: The New Wave” ” Philosophy and Neuroscience: A Ruthlessly Reductive Account”

  • Patricia Churchland “Brain-Wise : Studies in Neurophilosophy” “Neurophilosophy : Toward a Unified Science of the Mind-Brain”

  • Carl Craver “Explaining the brain : mechanisms and the mosaic unity of neuroscience”

  • Georg Northoff “Philosophy of the Brain: The brain problem”

  • Henrik Walter “Neurophilosophy of Free Will: From Libertarian Illusions to a Concept of Natural Autonomy”


  • Jaap van Brakel “Philosophy of Chemistry”


  • Daniel C. Dennett “Darwin’s Dangerous Idea”

  • Ruth Garrett Millikan “Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories”

  • Erwin Schrödinger, What is Life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell”

  • Elliott Sober “The Nature of Selection”


  • B. F. Skinner “Science and Human Behavior”


  • Donald Davidson “The Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme”

  • William James “The Principles of Psychology”


  • Kenneth Arrow “Social Choice and Individual Values”

  • Ludwig von Mises “The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science”

  • Elizabeth S. Anderson “Value in Ethics and Economics”

Arts and Humanities

  • Bernard Williams “Philosophy as a Humanistic Discipline”


  • Clive Bell “Art”

  • George Dickie “Art and the Aesthetic”


  • Roger Scruton “Music as an Art”


  • Aristotle “Poetics”


  • J. L. Austin, “A Plea for Excuses” “How To Do Things With Words”

  • Robert Brandom “Making it Explicit”

  • Stanley Cavell “Must We Mean What We Say?”

  • David Chalmers “Two Dimensional Semantics”

  • Cora Diamond “What Nonsense Might Be”

  • Michael Dummett “Frege: Philosophy of Language”

  • Gottlob Frege “On Sense and Reference”

  • H. P. Grice “Logic and Conversation”

  • Saul Kripke “Naming and Necessity”

  • David K. Lewis “General Semantics”

  • Willard Van Orman Quine “Word and Object”

  • Bertrand Russell “On Denoting”

  • John Searle “Speech Acts”

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein “Philosophical Investigations”


  • R.G. Collingwood “The Idea of History”

  • Karl Löwith “Meaning in History: The Theological Implications of the Philosophy of History”


  • Mario Bunge “Medical Philosophy: Conceptual Issues in Medicine”

  • R. Paul Thompson and Ross E. G. Upshur “Philosophy of Medicines”


  • Ronald Dworkin “Law’s Empire”

  • John Finnis “Natural Law and Natural Rights”

  • Lon L. Fuller “The Morality of Law”

  • H.L.A. Hart “The Concept of Law”


  • Aristotle “Politics”

  • Isaiah Berlin “Two Concepts of Liberty”

  • Robert Nozick “Anarchy, State, and Utopia”

  • Plato “Republic”

  • Karl Popper “The Open Society and Its Enemies”

  • John Rawls “A Theory of Justice”

  • Michael Sandel “Liberalism and the Limits of Justice”

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